The Early History of Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PNL)

  • Peter AlkenEmail author


The present chapter provides a detailed look into the early history of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL), showing that many have contributed to the development of this procedure including the author, who has taken active part in it. PNL has become an integral part of urology since more than 30 years, quickly expanding during the 1980s, but was not widely accepted until the 1970s. Many other urologists have contributed to this technique, reinventing it many times, and of course, the beneficial effects of the introduction of new instruments, accessories, technologies, and devices are evident.


Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Stone Removal Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy Percutaneous Nephrostomy Percutaneous Access 
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© Springer-Verlag France 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of UrologyUniversity Clinic MannheimMannheimGermany

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