Chronic Pain and the Anxiety Disorders: Epidemiology, Mechanisms and Models of Comorbidity, and Treatment

  • Joel Katz
  • M. Gabrielle Pagé
  • Samantha Fashler
  • Brittany N. Rosenbloom
  • Gordon J. G. Asmundson
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter provides an overview of the characteristics, theories, and treatments for the comorbidity between the anxiety disorders and chronic pain. Consistent with the majority of research and theory in this area, the primary focus of this chapter will be on comorbid chronic pain and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a stress- and trauma-related disorder that develops after exposure to a traumatic stressor. In the first section, we provide a definition and description of the features and epidemiology of chronic pain and the anxiety disorders. Data on the comorbidity between the two conditions is then presented, followed by a consideration of the temporal precedence of each condition in the etiology of their co-occurrence. The next section describes the three main theoretical approaches that have been taken to explain the high comorbidity rates; namely, mutual maintenance models, vulnerability models, and a combination of the two. Specific vulnerability factors, such as anxiety sensitivity and sensitivity to pain traumatization, are also discussed. The overlap between the neurocircuitry and neurophysiology common to both chronic pain and PTSD is reviewed, highlighting the role of the amygdala, prefrontal cortex (PFC), insular cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Two major pathways for the development of chronic pain and anxiety disorders are then considered: fear-conditioning and stress-induced analgesia. Finally, current psychological management strategies for both conditions are then considered, with an emphasis on a biopsychosocial approach to treatment. The chapter concludes with a discussion of future research directions.

Notes

Acknowledgments

Writing of this chapter was made possible, in part, by support from a Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) Canada Research Chair in Health Psychology to Joel Katz, a CIHR Canada Graduate Scholarship (CGS) Doctoral Award to M. Gabrielle Pagé, a CIHR CGS Master’s Award to Samantha Fashler, and a University of Regina President’s Research Chair in Adult Mental Health to Gordon J. G. Asmundson.

References

  1. 1.
    Albuquerque RJC, de Leeuw R, Carlson CR et al (2006) Cerebral activation during thermal stimulation of patients who have burning mouth disorder: an fMRI study. Pain 122(3):223–234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ameratunga S, Tin Tin S, Coverdale J et al (2009) Posttraumatic stress among hospitalized and nonhospitalized survivors of serious car crashes: a population-based study. Psychiatr Serv 60(3):402–404PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    American Psychiatric Association (2013) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 5th edn. American Psychiatric Publishing, ArlingtonGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    American Psychiatric Association (2000) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th text rev ed. American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Andrews B, Brewin CR, Philpott R, Stewart L (2007) Delayed-onset posttraumatic stress disorder: a systematic review of the evidence. Am J Psychiatry 164(9):1319–1326PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Asmundson GJ, Bonin MF, Frombach IK, Norton GR (2000) Evidence of a disposition toward fearfulness and vulnerability to posttraumatic stress in dysfunctional pain patients. Behav Res Ther 38(8):801–812PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Asmundson GJ, Coons MJ, Taylor S, Katz J (2002) PTSD and the experience of pain: research and clinical implications of shared vulnerability and mutual maintenance models. Can J Psychiatry 47(10):930–937PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Asmundson GJ, Fetzner MG, Deboer LB et al (2013) Let’s get physical: a contemporary review of the anxiolytic effects of exercise for anxiety and its disorders. Depress Anxiety 30(4):362–373PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Asmundson GJG, Abrams MP, Collimore KC (2008) Pain and anxiety disorders. In: Zvolensky MJ, Smits JAJ (eds) Health behaviors and physical illness in anxiety and its disorders: contemporary theory and research. Springer, New York, pp 207–235Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Asmundson GJG, Gómez-Pérez L, Fetzner MG (2014) Chronic pain and posttraumatic stress disorder. In: Zoellner LA, Feeny NC (eds) Facilitating resilience and recovery following trauma. Guillford, New York, pp 265–290Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Asmundson GJ, Jacobson SJ, Allerdings MD, Norton GR (1996) Social phobia in disabled workers with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Behav Res Ther 34(11):939–943PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Asmundson GJ, Katz J (2008) Understanding pain and posttraumatic stress disorder comorbidity: do pathological responses to trauma alter the perception of pain? Pain 138(2):247–249PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Asmundson GJ, Katz J (2009) Understanding the co-occurrence of anxiety disorders and chronic pain: state-of-the-art. Depress Anxiety 26(10):888–901PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Asmundson GJ, Norton GR, Allerdings MD et al (1998) Posttraumatic stress disorder and work-related injury. J Anxiety Disord 12(1):57–69PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Asmundson GJ, Norton PJ, Norton GR (1999) Beyond pain: the role of fear and avoidance in chronicity. Clin Psychol Rev 19(1):97–119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Asmundson GJ, Taylor S (2006) PTSD and chronic pain: cognitive–behavioral perspectives and practical implications. In: Young G, Kane AW, Nicholson K (eds) Psychological knowledge in court. PTSD, pain and TBI. Springer, New York, pp 225–241Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Asmundson GJ, Taylor S (1996) Role of anxiety sensitivity in pain-related fear and avoidance. J Behav Med 19(6):577–586PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bar-Haim Y, Lamy D, Pergamin L et al (2007) Threat-related attentional bias in anxious and nonanxious individuals: a meta-analytic study. Psychol Bull 133(1):1PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Beckham JC, Crawford AL, Feldman ME et al (1997) Chronic posttraumatic stress disorder and chronic pain in Vietnam combat veterans. J Psychosom Res 43(4):379–389PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Beck JG, Clapp JD (2011) A different kind of co-morbidity: understanding posttraumatic stress disorder and chronic pain. Psychol Trauma: Theor Res Pract Pol 3(2):101–108Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Beck JG, Freeman JB, Shipherd JC et al (2001) Specificity of Stroop interference in patients with pain and PTSD. J Abnorm Psychol 110(4):536–543PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bennett MI, Rayment C, Hjermstad M et al (2012) Prevalence and aetiology of neuropathic pain in cancer patients: a systematic review. Pain 153(2):359–365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Breivik H, Collett B, Ventafridda V et al (2006) Survey of chronic pain in Europe: prevalence, impact on daily life, and treatment. Eur J Pain 10(4):287–333PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Breslau N (2002) Epidemiologic studies of trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder, and other psychiatric disorders. Can J Psychiatry 47(10):923–929PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Breslau N, Kessler RC, Chilcoat HD et al (1998) Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in the community: the 1996 Detroit Area Survey of Trauma. Arch Gen Psychiatry 55(7):626PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bush G, Luu P, Posner MI (2000) Cognitive and emotional influences in anterior cingulate cortex. Trends Cogn Sci 4(6):215–222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bushnell MC, Apkarian AV (2006) Representation of pain in the brain. In: McMahon SB, Koltzenburg M (eds) Wall & Melzack’s textbook of pain, 5th edn. Elsevier/Churchill Livingston, Edinburgh, pp 107–121Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Butler RK, Finn DP (2009) Stress-induced analgesia. Prog Neurobiol 88(3):184–202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Casey KL, Tran TD (2006) Cortical mechanisms mediating acute and chronic pain in humans. In: Cervero F, Jensen TS (eds) Handbook of clinical neurology, vol 81. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 159–177Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Chossegros L, Hours M, Charnay P et al (2011) Predictive factors of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder 6 months after a road traffic accident. Accid Anal Prev 43(1):471–477PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Craig AD, Blomqvist A (2002) Is there a specific lamina I spinothalamocortical pathway for pain and temperature sensations in primates? J Pain 3(2):95–101; discussion 113–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Curtis K, Osadchuk A, Katz J (2011) An eight-week yoga intervention is associated with improvements in pain, psychological functioning and mindfulness, and changes in cortisol levels in women with fibromyalgia. J Pain Res 4:189PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Defrin R, Ginzburg K, Solomon Z et al (2008) Quantitative testing of pain perception in subjects with PTSD–implications for the mechanism of the coexistence between PTSD and chronic pain. Pain 138(2):450–459PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Demyttenaere K, Bruffaerts R, Lee S et al (2007) Mental disorders among persons with chronic back or neck pain: results from the World Mental Health Surveys. Pain 129(3):332–342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Dillworth T, Jensen MP (2010) The role of suggestions in hypnosis for chronic pain: a review of the literature. Open Pain J 3(1):39PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ehlers A, Clark DM (2000) A cognitive model of posttraumatic stress disorder. Behav Res Ther 38(4):319–345PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ehlers A, Mayou RA, Bryant B (1998) Psychological predictors of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder after motor vehicle accidents. J Abnorm Psychol 107(3):508PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Elliott AM, Smith BH, Penny KI et al (1999) The epidemiology of chronic pain in the community. Lancet 354(9186):1248–1252PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Etkin A, Wager TD (2007) Functional neuroimaging of anxiety: a meta-analysis of emotional processing in PTSD, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobia. Am J Psychiatry 164(10):1476–1488PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Fillingim RB, Ohrbach R, Greenspan JD et al (2011) Potential psychosocial risk factors for chronic TMD: descriptive data and empirically identified domains from the OPPERA case-control study. J Pain 12(11 Suppl):T46–T60PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Fillingim RB, Ohrbach R, Greenspan JD et al (2013) Psychological factors associated with development of TMD: the OPPERA prospective cohort study. J Pain 14(12 Suppl):T75–T90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Flier JS, Underhill LH, McEwen BS (1998) Protective and damaging effects of stress mediators. N Engl J Med 338(3):171–179Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Frankland PW, Bontempi B, Talton LE et al (2004) The involvement of the anterior cingulate cortex in remote contextual fear memory. Science 304:881–883PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Friedman M, Lowry P, Ruzek J (2010) VA/DoD clinical practice guidelines for the management of post-traumatic stress. US Department of Defense, US Department of Veterans Affairs, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gardner-Nix J (2009) Mindfulness-based stress reduction for chronic pain management. In: Didonna F (ed) Clinical handbook of mindfulness. Springer, New York, pp 369–381Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Geber C, Baumgartner U, Schwab R et al (2009) Revised definition of neuropathic pain and its grading system: an open case series illustrating its use in clinical practice. Am J Med 122(10 Suppl):S3–S12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Geuze E, Westenberg HG, Jochims A et al (2007) Altered pain processing in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 64(1):76–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Glover H (1992) Emotional numbing: a possible endorphin‐mediated phenomenon associated with post‐traumatic stress disorders and other allied psychopathologic states. J Trauma Stress 5(4):643–675Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Guglietti CL, Rosen B, Murphy KJ et al (2010) Prevalence and predictors of posttraumatic stress in women undergoing an ovarian cancer investigation. Psychol Serv 7(4):266–274Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Gureje O, Von Korff M, Kola L et al (2008) The relation between multiple pains and mental disorders: results from the World Mental Health Surveys. Pain 135(1–2):82–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Harstall C, Ospina M (2003) How prevalent is chronic pain. Pain: Clinical Updates 11(2):1–4Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hauser W, Galek A, Erbsloh-Moller B et al (2013) Posttraumatic stress disorder in fibromyalgia syndrome: prevalence, temporal relationship between posttraumatic stress and fibromyalgia symptoms, and impact on clinical outcome. Pain 154(8):1216–1223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hoffman BM, Papas RK, Chatkoff DK, Kerns RD (2007) Meta-analysis of psychological interventions for chronic low back pain. Health Psychol 26(1):1PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    IASP (1986) Classification of chronic pain. Pain Suppl 3:S1–S225Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Iversen AC, van Staden L, Hughes JH et al (2009) The prevalence of common mental disorders and PTSD in the UK military: using data from a clinical interview-based study. BMC Psychiatry 9:68PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Jenewein J, Moergeli H, Wittmann L et al (2009) Development of chronic pain following severe accidental injury. Results of a 3-year follow-up study. J Psychosom Res 66(2):119–126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Jensen MP, Barber J, Romano JM et al (2009) Effects of self-hypnosis training and EMG biofeedback relaxation training on chronic pain in persons with spinal-cord injury. Int J Clin Exp Hypn 57(3):239–268PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Johannes CB, Le TK, Zhou X et al (2010) The prevalence of chronic pain in United States adults: results of an Internet-based survey. J Pain 11(11):1230–1239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Johansen A, Romundstad L, Nielsen CS et al (2012) Persistent postsurgical pain in a general population: prevalence and predictors in the Tromso study. Pain 153(7):1390–1396PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Johnston IN, Maier SF, Rudy JW, Watkins LR (2012) Post-conditioning experience with acute or chronic inflammatory pain reduces contextual fear conditioning in the rat. Behav Brain Res 226(2):361–368PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Katz J, Asmundson GJ, McRae K, Halket E (2009) Emotional numbing and pain intensity predict the development of pain disability up to one year after lateral thoracotomy. Eur J Pain 13(8):870–878PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Keane T, Barlow D (2002) Posttraumatic stress disorder. In: Barlow D (ed) Anxiety and its disorders: the nature and treatment of anxiety and panic. Guilford Press, New York, pp 655–662Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Kessler RC, Chiu WT, Demler O et al (2005) Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry 62(6):617–627PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kessler RC, Sonnega A, Bromet E et al (1995) Posttraumatic stress disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry 52(12):1048–1060PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Kirkwood G, Rampes H, Tuffrey V et al (2005) Yoga for anxiety: a systematic review of the research evidence. Br J Sports Med 39(12):884–891PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kleiman V, Clarke H, Katz J (2011) Sensitivity to pain traumatization: a higher-order factor underlying pain-related anxiety, pain catastrophizing and anxiety sensitivity among patients scheduled for major surgery. Pain Res Manag 16(3):169–177PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Knaster P, Karlsson H, Estlander A-M, Kalso E (2012) Psychiatric disorders as assessed with SCID in chronic pain patients: the anxiety disorders precede the onset of pain. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 34(1):46–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Koenigs M, Grafman J (2009) Posttraumatic stress disorder: the role of medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala. Neuroscientist 15(5):540–548PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Koren D, Hemel D, Klein E (2006) Injury increases the risk for PTSD: an examination of potential neurobiological and psychological mediators. CNS Spectr 11(8):616–624PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Kraemer HC, Kazdin AE, Offord DR et al (1997) Coming to terms with the terms of risk. Arch Gen Psychiatry 54(4):337–343PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Kraus A, Geuze E, Schmahl C et al (2009) Differentiation of pain ratings in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Pain 143(3):179–185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Kulich RJ, Mencher P, Bertrand C, Maciewicz R (2000) Comorbidity of post-traumatic stress disorder and chronic pain: implications for clinical and forensic assessment. Curr Rev Pain 4(1):36–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Kupers R (2006) Brain imaging of pain. In: Cervero F, Jensen TS (eds) Handbook of clinical neurology, vol 81. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 481–501Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Landmark T, Romundstad P, Dale O et al (2012) Estimating the prevalence of chronic pain: validation of recall against longitudinal reporting (the HUNT pain study). Pain 153(7):1368–1373PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Lanius RA, Williamson MD, Densmore M et al (2004) The nature of traumatic memories: a 4-T fMRI functional connectivity analysis. Am J Psychiatry 161:36–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Layton B, Krikorian R (2002) Memory mechanisms in posttraumatic stress disorder. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 14(3):254–261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Leeuw M, Goossens ME, Linton SJ et al (2007) The fear-avoidance model of musculoskeletal pain: current state of scientific evidence. J Behav Med 30(1):77–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Liberzon I, Sripada CS (2008) The functional neuroanatomy of PTSD: a critical review. Prog Brain Res 167:151–169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Liedl A, Knaevelsrud C (2008) Chronic pain and PTSD: the Perpetual Avoidance Model and its treatment implications. Torture (Quarterly Journal on Rehabilitation of Torture Victims and Prevention of Torture 18(2):69–76Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Loeser JD, Melzack R (1999) Pain: an overview. Lancet 353(9164):1607–1609PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Maixner W, Diatchenko L, Dubner R et al (2011) Orofacial pain prospective evaluation and risk assessment study – the OPPERA study. J Pain 12(11 Suppl):T4-T11.e11–e12Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Martin AL, Halket E, Asmundson GJ et al (2010) Posttraumatic stress symptoms and the diathesis-stress model of chronic pain and disability in patients undergoing major surgery. Clin J Pain 26(6):518–527PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    McCracken LM, Iverson GL (2001) Predicting complaints of impaired cognitive functioning in patients with chronic pain. J Pain Symptom Manage 21(5):392–396PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    McFarlane AC, Atchison M, Rafalowicz E, Papay P (1994) Physical symptoms in post-traumatic stress disorder. J Psychosom Res 38(7):715–726PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Merskey H, Bogduk N (1994) Classification of chronic pain: descriptions of chronic pain syndromes and definitions of pain terms, 2nd edn. IASP Press, SeattleGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Michaels AJ, Michaels CE, Moon CH et al (1999) Posttraumatic stress disorder after injury: impact on general health outcome and early risk assessment. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 47(3):460–467Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Moeller-Bertram T, Afari N, Mostoufi S et al (2014) Specific pain complaints in Iraq and Afghanistan veterans screening positive for post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychosomatics 55(2):172–178Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Moeller-Bertram T, Keltner J, Strigo IA (2012) Pain and post traumatic stress disorder – review of clinical and experimental evidence. Neuropharmacology 62(2):586–597PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Mylle J, Maes M (2004) Partial posttraumatic stress disorder revisited. J Affect Disord 78(1):37–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Narita M, Kishimoto Y, Ise Y et al (2005) Direct evidence for the involvement of the mesolimbic kappa-opioid system in the morphine-induced rewarding effect under an inflammatory pain-like state. Neuropsychopharmacology 30(1):111–118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Neugebauer V (2006) Subcortical processing of nociceptive information: basal ganglia and amygdala. In: Cervero F, Jensen TS (eds) Handbook of clinical neurology, vol 81. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 141–158Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Neugebauer V (2007) The amygdala: different pains, different mechanisms. Pain 127(1–2):1–2PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Nishith P, Griffin MG, Poth TL (2002) Stress-induced analgesia: prediction of posttraumatic stress symptoms in battered versus nonbattered women. Biol Psychiatry 51(11):867–874PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Norman S, Stein M, Dimsdale J, Hoyt D (2008) Pain in the aftermath of trauma is a risk factor for post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychol Med 38(4):533–542PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Ocañez KL, McHugh KR, Otto MW (2010) A meta‐analytic review of the association between anxiety sensitivity and pain. Depress Anxiety 27(8):760–767PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    O’Donnell ML, Creamer M, Bryant RA et al (2006) Posttraumatic disorders following injury: assessment and other methodological considerations. In: Young G, Kane AW, Nicholson K (eds) Psychological knowledge in court. PTSD, pain and TBI. Springer, New York, pp 70–84Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    O’Donnell ML, Creamer M, Pattison P, Atkin C (2004) Psychiatric morbidity following injury. Am J Psychiatry 161(3):507–514PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    O’Donnell ML, Varker T, Creamer M et al (2013) Exploration of delayed-onset posttraumatic stress disorder after severe injury. Psychosom Med 75(1):68–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Olatunji BO, Wolitzky-Taylor KB (2009) Anxiety sensitivity and the anxiety disorders: a meta-analytic review and synthesis. Psychol Bull 135(6):974PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Olsen DR, Montgomery E, Bojholm S, Foldspang A (2007) Prevalence of pain in the head, back and feet in refugees previously exposed to torture: a ten-year follow-up study. Disabil Rehabil 29(2):163–171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Onen SH, Onen F, Courpron P, Dubray C (2005) How pain and analgesics disturb sleep. Clin J Pain 21(5):422–431PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Orr SP, Metzger LJ, Lasko NB et al (2000) De novo conditioning in trauma-exposed individuals with and without posttraumatic stress disorder. J Abnorm Psychol 109(2):290–298PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Otis JD, Keane TM, Kerns RD (2003) An examination of the relationship between chronic pain and post-traumatic stress disorder. J Rehabil Res Dev 40(5):397–405PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Parikh D, Hamid A, Friedman TC et al (2011) Stress-induced analgesia and endogenous opioid peptides: the importance of stress duration. Eur J Pharmacol 650(2–3):563–567PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Patel R, Spreng RN, Shin LM, Girard TA (2012) Neurocircuitry models of posttraumatic stress disorder and beyond: a meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 36(9):2130–2142PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Paulus MP, Stein MB (2006) An insular view of anxiety. Biol Psychiatry 60(4):383–387PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Peng PW (2012) Tai chi and chronic pain. Reg Anesth Pain Med 37(4):372–382PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Pergolizzi J, Ahlbeck K, Aldington D et al (2013) The development of chronic pain: physiological CHANGE necessitates a multidisciplinary approach to treatment. Curr Med Res Opin 29(9):1127–1135PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Phan KL, Wager T, Taylor SF, Liberzon I (2002) Functional neuroanatomy of emotion: a meta-analysis of emotion activation studies in PET and fMRI. Neuroimage 16(2):331–348PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Phifer J, Skelton K, Weiss T et al (2011) Pain symptomatology and pain medication use in civilian PTSD. Pain 152(10):2233–2240PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Pietrzak RH, Goldstein RB, Southwick SM, Grant BF (2011) Prevalence and Axis I comorbidity of full and partial posttraumatic stress disorder in the United States: results from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. J Anxiety Disord 25(3):456–465PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Plagge JM, Lu MW, Lovejoy TI et al (2013) Treatment of comorbid pain and PTSD in returning veterans: a collaborative approach utilizing behavioral activation. Pain Med 14(8):1164–1172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Posadzki P, Ernst E (2011) Yoga for low back pain: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Clin Rheumatol 30(9):1257–1262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Potvin S, Grignon S, Marchand S (2009) Human evidence of a supra‐spinal modulating role of dopamine on pain perception. Synapse 63(5):390–402PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Puretic MB, Demarin V (2012) Neuroplasticity mechanisms in the pathophysiology of chronic pain. Acta Clin Croat 51(3):425–429PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Rainville P, Bushnell MC, Duncan GH (2001) Representation of acute and persistent pain in the human CNS: potential implications for chemical intolerance. Ann N Y Acad Sci 933:130–141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Richardson LK, Frueh BC, Acierno R (2010) Prevalence estimates of combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder: critical review. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 44(1):4–19PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Rosenbloom BN, Khan S, McCartney C, Katz J (2013) Systematic review of persistent pain and psychological outcomes following traumatic musculoskeletal injury. J Pain Res 6:39–51PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Roy-Byrne P, Sullivan MD, Sherbourne CD et al (2013) Effects of pain and prescription opioid use on outcomes in a collaborative care intervention for anxiety. Clin J Pain 29(9):800–806PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Ryb GE, Dischinger PC, Read KM, Kufera JA (2009) PTSD after severe vehicular crashes. Annals of advances in automotive medicine//Annual Scientific Conference … Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine. Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine. Scientific Conference 53:177–193Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Saab CY (2012) Pain-related changes in the brain: diagnostic and therapeutic potentials. Trends Neurosci 35(10):629–637PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Sadeghi-Bazargani H, Maghsoudi H, Soudmand-Niri M et al (2011) Stress disorder and PTSD after burn injuries: a prospective study of predictors of PTSD at Sina Burn Center, Iran. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 7:425–429PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Salomons TV, Osterman JE, Gagliese L, Katz J (2004) Pain flashbacks in posttraumatic stress disorder. Clin J Pain 20(2):83–87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Sareen J, Cox BJ, Stein MB et al (2007) Physical and mental comorbidity, disability, and suicidal behavior associated with posttraumatic stress disorder in a large community sample. Psychosom Med 69(3):242–248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Schmahl C, Meinzer M, Zeuch A et al (2010) Pain sensitivity is reduced in borderline personality disorder, but not in posttraumatic stress disorder and bulimia nervosa. World J Biol Psychiatry 11(2):364–371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Schopflocher D, Taenzer P, Jovey R (2011) The prevalence of chronic pain in Canada. Pain Res Manag 16(6):445–450PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Schoth DE, Nunes VD, Liossi C (2012) Attentional bias towards pain-related information in chronic pain; a meta-analysis of visual-probe investigations. Clin Psychol Rev 32(1):13–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Sharp TJ, Harvey AG (2001) Chronic pain and posttraumatic stress disorder: mutual maintenance? Clin Psychol Rev 21(6):857–877PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Shaw WS, Means-Christensen AJ, Slater MA et al (2010) Psychiatric disorders and risk of transition to chronicity in men with first onset low back pain. Pain Med 11(9):1391–1400PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Shi C, Davis M (1999) Pain pathways involved in fear conditioning measured with fear-potentiated startle: lesion studies. J Neurosci 19(1):420–430PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Shin LM, Liberzon I (2010) The neurocircuitry of fear, stress, and anxiety disorders. Neuropsychopharmacology 35(1):169–191PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Shipherd JC, Keyes M, Jovanovic T et al (2007) Veterans seeking treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder: what about comorbid chronic pain? J Rehabil Res Dev 44(2):153–166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Smid GE, Mooren TT, van der Mast RC et al (2009) Delayed posttraumatic stress disorder: systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression analysis of prospective studies. J Clin Psychiatry 70(11):1572–1582PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Smith TC, Wingard DL, Ryan MA et al (2009) PTSD prevalence, associated exposures, and functional health outcomes in a large, population-based military cohort. Public Health Rep 124(1):90–102PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Stecker T, Fortney J, Owen R et al (2010) Co-occurring medical, psychiatric, and alcohol-related disorders among veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan. Psychosomatics 51(6):503–507PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Stein MB, Walker JR, Hazen AL, Forde DR (1997) Full and partial posttraumatic stress disorder: findings from a community survey. Am J Psychiatry 154(8):1114–1119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Tang JT, Ko S, Ding H-K et al (2005) Pavlovian fear memory induced by activation in the anterior cingulate cortex. Mol Pain 1(1):6PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Teh CF, Morone NE, Karp JF et al (2009) Pain interference impacts response to treatment for anxiety disorders. Depress Anxiety 26(3):222–228PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Thompson T, Keogh E, French CC, Davis R (2008) Anxiety sensitivity and pain: generalisability across noxious stimuli. Pain 134(1):187–196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Treede RD, Kenshalo DR, Gracely RH, Jones AK (1999) The cortical representation of pain. Pain 79(2–3):105–111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Tsang A, Von Korff M, Lee S et al (2008) Common chronic pain conditions in developed and developing countries: gender and age differences and comorbidity with depression-anxiety disorders. J Pain 9(10):883–891PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Turk DC (2002) A diathesis-stress model of chronic pain and disability following traumatic injury. Pain Res Manag 7(1):9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Ullrich PM, Smith BM, Poggensee L et al (2013) Pain and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms during inpatient rehabilitation among operation enduring freedom/operation iraqi freedom veterans with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 94(1):80–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    van Hecke O, Torrance N, Smith BH (2013) Chronic pain epidemiology and its clinical relevance. Br J Anaesth 111(1):13–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Vermetten E, Pitman RK (2005) Pain processing in disorders related to traumatic stress. Symposium presented at the 21st annual meeting of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, Toronto, 2–5 Nov 2005Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Vlaeyen JW, Kole-Snijders AM, Boeren RG, van Eek H (1995) Fear of movement/(re)injury in chronic low back pain and its relation to behavioral performance. Pain 62(3):363–372PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Vlaeyen JW, Linton SJ (2000) Fear-avoidance and its consequences in chronic musculoskeletal pain: a state of the art. Pain 85(3):317–332PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Vøllestad J, Sivertsen B, Nielsen GH (2011) Mindfulness-based stress reduction for patients with anxiety disorders: evaluation in a randomized controlled trial. Behav Res Ther 49(4):281–288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Von Korff M, Crane P, Lane M et al (2005) Chronic spinal pain and physical-mental comorbidity in the United States: results from the national comorbidity survey replication. Pain 113(3):331–339Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Wald J, Taylor S, Chiri LR, Sica C (2010) Posttraumatic stress disorder and chronic pain arising from motor vehicle accidents: efficacy of interoceptive exposure plus trauma-related exposure therapy. Cogn Behav Ther 39(2):104–113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Wald J, Taylor S, Fedoroff IC (2004) The challenge of treating PTSD in the context of chronic pain. In: Taylor S (ed) Advances in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. Springer, New York, pp 197–222Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Whalley MG, Farmer E, Brewin CR (2007) Pain flashbacks following the July 7th 2005 London bombings. Pain 132(3):332–336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    World Health Organization (1992) The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders: clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines. WHO, GenevaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag France 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joel Katz
    • 1
  • M. Gabrielle Pagé
    • 1
  • Samantha Fashler
    • 1
  • Brittany N. Rosenbloom
    • 2
  • Gordon J. G. Asmundson
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyYork UniversityTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Institute of Medical ScienceUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyUniversity of ReginaReginaCanada

Personalised recommendations