Negotiating Roles: Controversies and the End of an Era

  • David L. StearnsEmail author
Part of the History of Computing book series (HC)


This chapter describes other conflicts between Hock and the member banks over what role the central organization should play. I argue that this role had to be “worked out” as the system grew and evolved. Most of the members assumed that the central organization existed solely to coordinate their credit card programs, but several events caused them to question whether Visa was now acting more like their competitor than their coordinator. Topics covered include the Visa travelers cheque program, the direct signing of the national retailer JC Penny by Visa USA, and other signs that the membership interpreted as empire building. As Hock and the members continued to struggle over their respective roles, tensions increased, Hock’s power of persuasion began to fade, and he was ultimately forced out of the organization in 1984.


Credit Card Central Organization Board Meeting Debit Card Payment Instrument 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Seattle Pacific UniversitySeattleUSA

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