Algae Energy pp 183-194 | Cite as

Future Developments

  • Ayhan Demirbas
  • M. Fatih Demirbas
Part of the Green Energy and Technology book series (GREEN)


During the last 200 years, developed countries have shifted their energy consumption toward fossil fuels. Renewable energies have been the primary energy source in the history of the human race. Wood was used for cooking and water and space heating. The first renewable energy technologies were primarily simple mechanical applications and did not reach high energetic efficiencies. Industrialization changed the primary energy use from renewable resources to sources with a much higher energetic value such as coal and oil. The promise of unlimited fossil fuels was much more attractive, and rapid technical progress made the industrial use of oil and coal economical.


Clean Development Mechanism Energy Crop Energy Security Carbon Credit Exergy Analysis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Adsavakulchai, S., Minns, D., Chan, A. 2004. Assessing the interaction of vegetation diversity and landuse using remote sensing: an example in southeastern Ontario, Canada. Environ Inf Arch 2:499–508.Google Scholar
  2. Ates, E., Tekeli, A. S. 2005. Heritability and variance components of some morphological and agronomic traits in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Proc Pakistan Acad Sci 42:1–5.Google Scholar
  3. Chisti, Y. 2007. Biodiesel from microalgae. Biotechnol Adv 25:294–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Demirbas, A. 2006. Energy priorities and new energy strategies. Energy Educ Sci Technol 16:53–109.Google Scholar
  5. Demirbas, A. 2007. Importance of biodiese as transportation fuel. Energy Policy 35:4661–4670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Demirbas, A. H., Demirbas, I. 2007. Importance of rural bioenergy for developing countries. Energy Convers Manage 48:2386–2398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dunahay, T. G., Jarvis, E. E., Dais, S. S., Roessler, P. G. 1996. Manipulation of microalgal lipid production using genetic engineering. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 57–58:223–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. EEA. 2005. How much biomass can Europe use without harming the environment, briefing. European Environmental Agency, Brussels, Belgium.Google Scholar
  9. Hoogwijk, M., Faaij, A., van den Broek, R., Berndes, G., Gielen, D., Turkenburg, W. 2003. Exploration of the ranges of the global potential of biomass for energy. Biomass Bioenergy 25:119–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Humbad, A., Kumar, S., Babu, B. V. 2009. Carbon credits for energy self sufficiency in rural India – a case study. Energy Educ Sci Technol A 22:187–197.Google Scholar
  11. Lal, R. 2005. World crop residues production and implications of its use as a biofuel. Environ Int 31:575–584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Pimentel, D., Pimentel, M. 1996. Food, Energy and Society. Colorado University Press, Boulder, CO.Google Scholar
  13. Pimentel, D. 2001. Biomass utilization, limits of. In: Meyers, R. A. (ed.). Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology, 3rd edn. Academic, San Diego.Google Scholar
  14. Pimentel, D., Marklein, A., Toth, M. A., Karpoff, M., Paul, G. S., McCormack, R., Kyriazis, J., Krueger, T. 2008. Biofuel impacts on world food supply: use of fossil fuel, land and water resources. Energies 1:41–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ptasinski, K. J. 2008. Thermodynamic efficiency of biomass gasification and biofuels conversion. Biofuels Bioprod Bioref 2:239–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ramage, J., Scurlock, J. 1996. Biomass. In: Boyle, G. (ed.). Renewable energy-power for a sustainable future. Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  17. Sheehan, J., Dunahay, T., Benemann, J., Roessler, P. 1998. A look back at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Aquatic Species Program – Biodiesel from Algae. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Report: NREL/TP-580-24190. Golden, CO.Smeets, E. M. W., Faaij, A. P. C., Lewandowski, I. M., Turkenburg, W. C. 2007. A bottom-up assessment and review of global bio-energy potentials to 2050. Prog Energy Combust Sci 33:56–106.Google Scholar
  18. UN. 2006. The emerging biofuels market: regulatory, trade and development implications. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, New York and Geneva.Google Scholar
  19. WHO. 2005. Malnutrition worldwide. Environmental Burden of Disease Series, No. 12, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  20. Zhang, S. P., Yan, Y. J., Ren, J. W., Li, T. C. 2003. Study of hydrodeoxygenation of bio-oil from the fast pyrolysis of biomass. Energy Sourc 25:57–65.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ayhan Demirbas
    • 1
  • M. Fatih Demirbas
    • 2
  1. 1.Sirnak UniversitySirnakTurkey
  2. 2.University Mah.Sila Science and Energy Unlimited CompanyTrabzonTurkey

Personalised recommendations