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Energy needs are increasing continuously because of increases in industrialization and population. The growth of the world’s energy demand raises urgent problems. The larger part of petroleum and natural gas reserves is located within a small group of countries. Today’s energy system is unsustainable because of equity issues as well as environmental, economic, and geopolitical concerns that have implications far into the future. Bioenergy is one of the most important components of greenhouse-gas-emissions mitigation and fossil–fuel replacement (Goldemberg 2000; Dincer 2008). Renewable energy is one of the most efficient ways to achieve sustainable development.
KeywordsItaconic Acid Distillation Column Biomass Feedstock Transportation Fuel Liquid Biofuel
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