When I was taught mathematics at junior school in the late 1950s, there were no computers or calculators. Calculations, whether they were addition, subtraction, multiplication, division or square roots, had to be worked out in one’s head or with pencil and paper. We learnt our ‘times tables’ by reciting them over and over again until we could give the product of any pair of numbers up to 12 in a fraction of a second – numbers higher than 12 were computed long hand.


Computer Graphic Mathematical Ability Computer Animation Fibonacci Number Time Table 
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© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • John Vince
    • 1
  1. 1.RingwoodUnited Kingdom

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