Advertisement

Presence, Involvement, and Flow in Digital Games

  • Jari Takatalo
  • Jukka Häkkinen
  • Jyrki Kaistinen
  • Göte Nyman
Chapter
Part of the Human-Computer Interaction Series book series (HCIS)

Abstract

Digital games elicit rich and meaningful experiences for the gamers. This makes games hard to study solely with usability methods that are used in the field of human–computer interaction. Here is presented a candidate framework to analyze multidimensional user experience (UX) in games. Theoretically, the framework is grounded both on previous game studies and on relevant psychological theories. Methodologically, it relies on multivariate data analysis of approximately 320 games (n = 2182), with the aim of revealing the subcomponents of UX in games. The framework captures the essential psychological determinants of UX, namely, its quality, intensity, meaning, value, and extensity. Mapping these determinants to the game mechanics, the narrative and the interface offers a rich view to UX in games and provides added value to those who want to understand why games are experienced in certain ways.

Keywords

Digital games User experience Presence Flow Involvement Empirical Factor analysis 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank prof. Takashi Kawai, Antti Hulsi, Heikki Särkelä, Jeppe Komulainen, Miikka Lehtonen, Maija Pekkola, Jaakko Sipari, and Jari Lipsanen for help in collecting and analyzing the data and sharing thoughts. This work has been supported by the User Centered Information Technology graduate school, Oskar Öflund’s Foundation and the Kone Foundation.

References

  1. Atkinson JW (1964) An Introduction to Motivation. D. Van Nostrand Company, New York.Google Scholar
  2. Brennan L, Mavondo F (2000) Involvement: An unfinished story? In: Proceedings of ANZMAZ 2000, pp. 132–137.Google Scholar
  3. Brown E, Cairns P (2004) A grounded investigation of game immersion. In: Proceedings of CHI 2004, ACM Press, pp. 1297–1300.Google Scholar
  4. Counter-Strike: Source (2004). http://store.steampowered.com/app/240/. Accessed March 22, 2009.
  5. Csikszentmihalyi M (1975) Beyond Boredom and Anxiety. Jossey-Bass Publishers, San Francisco, CA.Google Scholar
  6. Davis JP, Steury K, Pagulayan R (2005) A survey method for assessing perceptions of a game: The consumer playtest in game design. Game Studies 5: 1.Google Scholar
  7. Della Fave A, Massimini F (1988) Modernization and the changing context of flow in work and leisure. In: Csikszentmihalyi I, Csikszentmihalyi M (ed) Optimal Experience: Psychological Studies of Flow in Consciousness. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  8. Ducheneaut N, Yee N, Nickell E, Moore RJ (2006) “Alone together?”: Exploring the social dynamics of massively multiplayer online games. In: Proceedings of CHI 2006, ACM Press, New York, pp. 407–416.Google Scholar
  9. Ermi L, Mäyrä F (2005) Fundamental components of the game play Experience: Analysing immersion. In: Proceedings of DiGRA 2005.Google Scholar
  10. Fontaine G (1992) The experience of a sense of presence in intercultural and international encounters. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Enviroments 1: 482–490.Google Scholar
  11. Ghani JA, Deshpande SP (1994) Task characteristics and the experience of optimal flow in human-computer interaction. Journal of Psychology 128: 381–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Half-Life 2 (2004). http://www.half-life.com/overview.html. Accessed March 22, 2009.
  13. Hilgard ER (1980) The trilogy of mind: cognition, affection, and conation. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 16: 107–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hunicke R, LeBlanc M, Zubek R (2004) MDA: A formal approach to game design and game research. In: Proceedings of AAAI Workshop on Challenges in Game AI: 4.Google Scholar
  15. IJsselsteijn W, de Kort Y, Poels K, Jurgelionis A, Bellotti F (2007) Characterising and measuring user experiences in digital games. In: Proceedings of ACE 2007.Google Scholar
  16. ISO 9241-210:2008 (2008) Ergonomics of human system interaction – Part 210: Human-centred design for interactive systems (formerly known as 13407). International Standardization Organization (ISO).Google Scholar
  17. James W (1890) The Principles of Psychology. H. Holt and Company, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jennett C, Cox AL, Cairns P, Dhoparee S, Epps A, Tijs T, Walton A (2008) Measuring and defining the experience of immersion in games. International Journal of Human Computer Studies 66: 641–661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kim T, Biocca F (1997) Telepresence via television: Two dimensions of telepresence may have different connections to memory and persuasion. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 3(2).Google Scholar
  20. Komulainen J, Takatalo J, Lehtonen M, Nyman G (2008) Psychologically structured approach to user experience in games. In: Proceedings of NordiCHI 2008, ACM Press, New York, pp. 487–490.Google Scholar
  21. Lazarus RS (1991a) Cognition and motivation in emotion. American Psychologist 46: 352–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lazarus RS (1991b) Progress on a cognitive-motivational-relational theory of emotion. American Psychologist 46: 819–834.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lazzaro N (2004) Why we play games: Four keys to more emotion without story. http://www.xeodesign.com/whyweplaygames/xeodesign_whyweplaygames.pdf. Accessed November 2007.
  24. Lessiter J, Freeman J, Keogh E, Davidoff J (2001) A cross-media presence questionnaire: The ITC-sense of presence inventory. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Enviroments 10: 282–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lombard M, Ditton T (1997) At the heart of it all: The concept of presence. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 3: 2.Google Scholar
  26. Lombard M, Ditton TB, Crane D, Davis B (2000) Measuring presence: A literature-based approach to the development of a standardized paper-and-pencil instrument. In: Proceedings of Presence 2000.Google Scholar
  27. Lubart TI, Getz I (1998) The influence of heuristics on psychological science: A case study of research on creativity. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 28: 435–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mayer JD (2001) Primary divisions of personality and their scientific contributions: From the trilogy-of-mind to the systems set. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 31: 449–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. McMahan A (2003) Immersion, engagement and presence: A method for analyzing 3-D video games. In: Wolf MJP, Perron B (ed) The Video Game Theory Reader. Routledge, New York.Google Scholar
  30. McQuarrie EF, Munson JM (1992) A revised product involvement inventory: Improved usability and validity. Advances in Consumer Research 19: 108–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mehrabian A, Russell JA (1974) An Approach to Environmental Psychology. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  32. Metacritic.com (2009). http://www.metacritic.com/games/. Accessed March 22, 2009.
  33. Nakatsu R, Rauterberg M, Vorderer P (2005) A new framework for entertainment computing: From passive to active experience. In: Proceedings of ICEC 2005, IFIP, pp. 1–12.Google Scholar
  34. Novak TP, Hoffman DL, Yung YF (2000) Measuring the customer experience in online environments: A structural modeling approach. Marketing Science 19: 22–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Pagulayan RJ, Keeker K, Wixon D, Romero RL, Fuller T (2003) User-centered design in games. In: JA Jacko and A Sears (eds) The Human–Computer Interaction Handbook: Fundamentals, Evolving Technologies and Emerging Applications. Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Hillsdale.Google Scholar
  36. Pinchbeck D, Stevens B (2005) Schemata, narrative and presence. In: Proceedings of Presence 2005, pp. 221–226.Google Scholar
  37. Poels K, de Kort YAW, IJsselsteijnWA (2007) “It is always a lot of fun!” Exploring dimensions of digital game experience using focus group methodology. In: Proceedings of Future Play 2007, pp. 83–89.Google Scholar
  38. Portal (2007). http://orange.half-life2.com/portal.html. Accessed March 22, 2009.
  39. Ryan R, Rigby C, Przybylski A (2006) The motivational pull of video games: A self-determination theory approach. Motivation & Emotion 30: 344–360.Google Scholar
  40. Rettie R (2001) An exploration of flow during Internet use. Internet Research: Electronic Networking Applications and Policy 11: 103–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Rothschild ML (1984) Perspectives on involvement: Current problems and future directions. Advances in Consumer Research 11: 216–217.Google Scholar
  42. Rust J, Golombok S (1999) Modern Psychometrics: The Science of Psychological Assessment. Routledge, London & New York.Google Scholar
  43. Särkelä H, Takatalo J, Komulainen J, Nyman G, Häkkinen J (2004) Attitudes to new technology and experiential dimensions of two different digital games. In: Proceedings of NordiCHI 2004, ACM Press, New York, pp. 349–352.Google Scholar
  44. Schiefele U (1991) Interest, learning, and motivation. Educational Psychologist 26: 299–323.Google Scholar
  45. Schubert T, Friedmann F, Regenbrecht H (2001) The experience of presence: Factor analytic insights. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Enviroments 10: 266–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Schuemie MJ, van der Straaten P, Krijn M, van der Mast CAPG (2001) Research on presence in virtual reality: A survey. CyberPsychology & Behavior 4: 183–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sherry JL, Lucas K, Greenberg BS, Lachlan K (2006) Video game uses and gratifications as predictors of use and game preference. In: Vorderer P, Bryant J (ed) Playing Video Games: Motives, Responses, and Consequences. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahawa, NJ.Google Scholar
  48. Sweetser P, Johnson D (2004) Player-centred game environments: Assessing player opinions, experiences and issues. In: Proceedings of ICEC 2004, Springer, pp. 321–332.Google Scholar
  49. Sweetser P, Wyeth P (2005) GameFlow: A model for evaluating player enjoyment in games. Computers in Entertainment 3(3): Article 3a.Google Scholar
  50. Tabachnick BG, Fidell LS (2001) Using Multivariate Statistics. Allyn & Bacon, Needham Heights, MA.Google Scholar
  51. Takatalo J, Häkkinen J, Kaistinen J, Komulainen J, Särkelä H, Nyman G (2006a) Adaptation into a game: Involvement and presence in four different PC-games. In: Proceedings of FuturePlay 2006.Google Scholar
  52. Takatalo J, Häkkinen J, Lehtonen M, Kaistinen J, Nyman G (Submitted) Experiencing flow in digital games.Google Scholar
  53. Takatalo J, Häkkinen J, Lehtonen M, Komulainen J, Kaistinen J, Nyman G (2008) User Experience in playing a digital game in different situations. In: Proceedings of IADIS Gaming 2008, pp. 3–10.Google Scholar
  54. Takatalo J, Häkkinen J, Särkelä H, Komulainen J, Nyman G (2004) The experiential dimensions of two different digital games. In: Proceedings of Presence 2004, UPV, pp. 274–278.Google Scholar
  55. Takatalo J, Häkkinen J, Särkelä H, Komulainen J, Nyman G (2006b) Involvement and presence in digital gaming. In: Proceedings of NordiCHI 2006, ACM Press, Norway, pp. 393–396.Google Scholar
  56. Tarkkonen L, Vehkalahti K (2005) Measurement errors in multivariate measurement scales. Journal of Multivariate Analysis 96: 172–189.MathSciNetMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Usoh M, Catena E, Arman S, Slater M (2000) Using presence questionnaires in reality. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Enviroments 9: 497–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Vehkalahti K, Puntanen S, Tarkkonen L (2009) Implications of dimensionality on measurement reliability. In: Schipp B, Kräer W (ed) Statistical Inference, Econometric Analysis and Matrix Algebra. Springer, New York.Google Scholar
  59. Vehkalahti K, Puntanen S, Tarkkonen L (2006) Estimation of reliability: A better alternative for Cronbach’s alpha. Reports on Mathematics, Preprint 430, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Helsinki, Finland. http://mathstat.helsinki.fi/reports/Preprint430.pdfAccessed March,2009.
  60. Webster J, Martocchio JJ (1992) Microcomputer playfulness: Development of a measure with workplace implications. MIS Quarterly 16: 201–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Winn B (2006) Serious games construction workshop. Half-day workshop given at FuturePlay 2006. In: Proceedings of FuturePlay 2006.Google Scholar
  62. Witmer B, Singer M (1998) Measuring presence in virtual environments: A presence questionnaire. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 7: 225–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Wood RTA, Griffiths MD, Chappell D, Davies MNO (2004) The structural characteristics of video games: A psycho-structural analysis. CyberPsychology & Behavior 7: 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Wundt WM (1897) Outlines of psychology [Judd CH, Trans.] http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Wundt/Outlines/. Accessed April 2002.
  65. Zaichkowsky JL (1985) Measuring the involvement construct. Journal of Consumer Research 12: 341–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jari Takatalo
    • 1
  • Jukka Häkkinen
    • 2
  • Jyrki Kaistinen
    • 1
  • Göte Nyman
    • 1
  1. 1.Psychology of Evolving Media and Technology (POEM), University of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland
  2. 2.The Aalto University School of Science and TechnologyEspooFinland

Personalised recommendations