Advertisement

Overview of Noninvasive Vascular Techniques in Peripheral Arterial Disease

  • Ali F. AbuRahma
Chapter
  • 792 Downloads

Abstract

Various noninvasive vascular diagnostic techniques have been described in the past four decades to help the clinician in the management of vascular patients. Although many physicians still rely entirely upon arteriography as the main tool for evaluation of peripheral arterial occlusive disease, the role of the vascular laboratory cannot be denied. These techniques should remain as a valuable adjunct to the information gained from the complete history and physical examination. Noninvasive vascular tests help the physician to evaluate the presence or absence of significant arterial occlusive disease, severity of disease, location of disease, and, in the presence of multisegmental disease, which arterial segment is mostly affected.

Keywords

Pulse Wave Velocity Peripheral Arterial Disease Reactive Hyperemia Arterial Occlusive Disease Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    AbuRahma AF, Khan S, Robinson PA. Selective use of segmental Doppler pressures and color duplex imaging in the localization of arterial occlusive disease of the lower extremity. Surgery 1995;118:496–503.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Toursarkissian B, Mejia A, Smilanich RP, Schoolfield J, Shireman PK, Sykes MT. Noninvasive localization of infrainguinal arterial occlusive disease in diabetics. Ann Vasc Surg 2001;15:73–78.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Holland T. Utilizing the ankle brachial index in clinical practice. Ostomy Wound Manage 2002;48:38–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Adam DJ, Naik J, Hartshorne T, Bello M, London NJ. The diagnosis and management of 689 chronic leg ulcers in a single-visit assessment clinic. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2003;25:462–468.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Carser DG. Do we need to reappraise our method of interpreting the ankle brachial pressure index? J Wound Care 2001;10:59–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Satomura S, Kaneko Z. Ultrasonic blood rheograph. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Medical Electronics, 1960, p. 254.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Strandness DE Jr, McCutcheon EP, Rushmer RF. Application of transcutaneous Doppler flow meter in evaluation of occlusive arterial disease. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1966;122: 1039–1045.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Green PS, Marich KW. Real-time orthographic ultrasonic imaging for cardiovascular diagnosis. In: Harrison, DE, Sandler H, and Miller HA (eds). Cardiovascular Imaging and Image Processing: Theory and Practice, Vol. 72. Palos Verdes Estates, CA: Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, 1975.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Landowne M, Katz LN. A critique of the plethysmographic method of measuring blood flow in the extremities of man. Am Heart J 1942;23:644–675.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Brodie PE, Russell AE. On the determination of the rate of blood flow through an organ. J Physiol 1905;32:47P.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hertzman AP. The blood supply of various skin area as estimated by the photoelectric plethysmograph. Am J Physiol 1938;124:328–340.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Barnes RW, Clayton JM, Bone GE, et al. Supraorbital photo-pulse plethysmography: Simple accurate screening from carotid occlusive disease. J Surg Rx 1977;22:319–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Eldrup-Jorgensen SV, Schwartz SI, Wallace JD. A method of clinical evaluation of peripheral circulation: Photoelectric hemodensitometry. Surgery 1966;59:505–513.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Barnes RW, Garrett WV, Slaymaker EE, et al. Doppler ultrasound and supraorbital photoplethysmography for noninvasive screening of carotid occlusive disease. Am J Surg 1977;134:183–186.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Barnes RW, Garrett WV, Hommel BA, et al. Photoplethysmography assessment of altered cutaneous circulation in the post-phlebitic syndrome. Proc Assoc Adv Med Instrum 1978;13:25–29.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bortolotto LA, Blacher J, Kondo T, Takazawa K, Safar ME. Assessment of vascular aging and atherosclerosis in hypertensive subjects: Second derivative of photoplethysmogram versus pulse wave velocity. Am J Hypertens 2000;13:165– 171.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Whitney RJ. The measurement of changes in human limb volume by means of mercury-in-rubber strain gauge. J Physiol 1949;109:5P.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hokanson DE, Sumner DS, Strandness DE Jr. An electrically calibrated plethysmography for direct measurement of limb blood flow. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 1975;BME–22:25–29.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Barnes RW, Hokanson DE, Wu KK, et al. Detection of deep vein thrombosis with an automatic electricallycalibrated strain gauge plethysmograph. Surgery 1977;82: 219–223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Yao JST, Needham TN, Gourmoos C, Irvine WT. A comparative study of strain-gauge plethysmography and Doppler ultrasound in the assessment of occlusive arterial disease of the lower extremities. Surgery 1972;71:4–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Winsor T. The segmental plethysmograph: Description of the instrument. Angiology 1957;8:87–101.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Darling RC, Raines VK, Brenner V, et al. Quantitative segmental pulse volume recorder. A clinical tool. Surgery 1972;72:873–877.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nicholaides A. Quantitative air-plethysmography in management of arterial ischemia. In: Bernstein EF (ed). Vascular Diagnosis, 4th ed., pp. 544–546. St. Louis: Mosby, 1993.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Strandness DE Jr. Wave Form Analysis in the Diagnosis of Arteriosclerosis Obliterans and Peripheral Arterial Disease, a Physiologic Approach, pp. 92–113. Boston: Little Brown & Co., 1969.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kuvin JT, Patel AR, Sliney KA, Pandian NG, Sheffy J, Schnall RP, Karas RH, Udelson JE. Assessment of peripheral vascular endothelial function with finger arterial pulse wave amplitude. Am Heart J 2003;146:168–174.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gundersen J. Segmental measurement of systolic blood pressure in the extremities including the thumb and the great toe. Acta Chir Scand 1972 (Suppl. 426);1–90.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hillestad LK. The peripheral blood flow in intermittent claudication. IV. The significance of claudication distance. Acta Med Scand 1963;173:467–478.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rich K. Transcutaenous oxygen measurements: Implications for nursing. J Vasc Nurs 2001;19:55–59.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kram HB, Appel PL, Shoemaker WC. Multisensor transcutaneous oximetric mapping to predict below-knee amputation wound healing: Use of a critical PO2. J Vasc Surg 1989;9:796–800.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Belcaro G, et al. Evaluation of skin blood flow and venoarteriolar response in patients with diabetes and peripheral vascular disease by laser Doppler flowmetry. Angiology 1989;40:953–957.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Eicke BM, Milke K, Schlereth T, Birklein F. Comparison of continuous wave Doppler ultrasound of the radial artery and laser Doppler flowmetry of the fingertips with sympathetic stimulation. J Neurol 2004;251:958–962.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kubli S, Waeber B, Dalle-Ave A, Feihl F. Reproduciblity of laser Doppler imaging of skin blood flow as a tool to assess endothelial function. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2000;36:640– 648.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Moss CM, Rudavsky AZ, Veith FJ. The value of scintiangiography in arterial disease. Arch Surg 1976;111:1235– 1242.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lassen NA. Muscle blood flow in normal man and in patient with intermittent claudication evaluated by simultaneous Xe-133 and Na-24 clearances. J Clin Invest 1964;43:1805– 1812.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Siegel ME, Giargiana FA Jr., Rhodes BA, et al. Perfusion of ischemic ulcer of the extremity: A prognostic indicator of feeling after healing. Arch Surg 1975;110:265–268.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Rhodes BA, Rutherford RB, Lopez-Majano V, et al. Arteriovenous shunt measurements in extremities. J Nucl Med 1972;13:357–362.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Terry HJ. The electromagnetic measurement of blood flow during arterial surgery. Biomed Eng 1972;7:466–474.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Lee BY, Campbell JS, Berkowitz P. The correlation of ankle oscillometric blood pressures and segmental pulse volumes to Doppler systolic pressures in arterial occlusive disease. J Vasc Surg 1996;23:116–122.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hatsukami TS, Primozich JF, Zierler RE. Color Doppler imaging of infrainguinal arterial occlusive disease. J Vasc Surg 1992;16:527–533.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Moneta GL, Yeager RA, Lee RW. Noninvasive localization of arterial occlusive disease: A comparison of segmental Doppler pressures and arterial duplex mapping. J Vasc Surg 1993;17:578–582.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Collier P, Wilcox, Brooks D. Improved patient selection for angioplasty utilizing color Doppler imaging. Am J Surg 1990;160:171–173.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Feigelson HS, Criqui MH, Fronek A. Screening for peripheral arterial disease: The sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of noninvasive tests in a defined population. Am J Epidemiol 1994;140:526–534.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ali F. AbuRahma
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryRobert C. Byrd Health Sciences Center, West Virginia UniversityCharlestonUSA
  2. 2.Charleston Area Medical CenterCharlestonUSA

Personalised recommendations