Renal Anatomy, Physiology and Its Clinical Relevance to Partial Nephrectomy

  • Francesco Rocco
  • Gabriele Cozzi


Nowadays, partial nephrectomy can be considered the gold standard for the treatment of localized renal tumors with a diameter of 4 cm or less (stage T1a).1 Some authors affirm that there is no difference in the outcome even if the size is 7 cm or less (stage T1b)2: nephron-sparing surgery (NSS) guarantees local cancer control in the large majority of the patients, with preservation of renal function in those with elective indications.


Partial nephrectomy Renal function Surgical anatomy Surgical margins Warm ischemia 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Francesco Rocco
    • 1
  • Gabriele Cozzi
    • 2
  1. 1.University of MilanMilanItaly
  2. 2.Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda – Ospedale Maggiore PoliclinicoClinica Urologica I – Università degli Studi di MilanoMilanItaly

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