Advertisement

Neighbor Selection in Peer-to-Peer Overlay Networks: A Swarm Intelligence Approach

Chapter
Part of the Computer Communications and Networks book series (CCN)

Abstract

Peer-to-peer (P2P) topology has a significant influence on the performance, search efficiency and functionality, and scalability of the application. In this chapter, we investigate a multi-swarm approach to the problem of neighbor selection in P2P networks. Particle swarm share some common characteristics with P2P in the dynamic socially environment. Each particle encodes the upper half of the peer-connection matrix through the undirected graph, which reduces the search space dimension. The portion of the adjustment to the velocity influenced by the individual’s cognition, the group cognition from multi-swarms, and the social cognition from the whole swarm, makes an important influence on the particles’ ergodic and synergetic performance. We also attempt to theoretically prove that the multi-swarm optimization algorithm converges with a probability of 1 towards the global optima. The performance of our approach is evaluated and compared with other two different algorithms. The results indicate that it usually required shorter time to obtain better results than the other considered methods, specially for large scale problems.

Keywords

P2P swarming networks Neighbor selection Particle swarm Genetic algorithm Undirected graph 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Drs. Shichang Sun, Mingyan Zhao for their scientific collaboration in this research work. This work is supported partially by NSFC Grant 60873054 and DLMU Grant DLMU-ZL-200709.

References

  1. 1.
    Lua E K, Crowcroft J, Pias M, Sharma R and Lim S (2005) A Survey and Comparison of Peer-to-Peer Overlay Network Schemes. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, 7(2):72–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kwok S (2006) P2P Searching Trends: 2002-2004. Information Processing and Management, 42:237–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Huang X, Chang C and Chen M (2006) PeerCluster: A Cluster-Based Peer-to-Peer System. IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, 17(10):1110–1123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Belmonte M V, Conejo R, Díaz M and Pérez-de-la-Cruz J L (2006) Coalition Formation in P2P File Sharing Systems, Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, CAEPIA’05, vol. 4177, pp. 153–162Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Idris T and Altmann J (2006) A Market-managed Topology Formation Algorithm for Peer-to-Peer File Sharing Networks, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 4033, pp. 61–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cho H (2007) An Update Propagation Algorithm for P2P File Sharing over Wireless Mobile Networks, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ICCS’07, vol. 4490, pp. 753–760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pianese F, Perino D, Keller J and Biersack E W (2007) PULSE: An Adaptive, Incentive-Based, Unstructured P2P Live Streaming System. IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, 9(8):1645–1660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sigurdsson H M, Halldorsson U R and Hasslinger G (2007) Potentials and Challenges of Peer-to-Peer Based Content Distribution. Telematics and Informatics, 24:348–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yang S and Chen I (2008) A Social Network-based System for Supporting Interactive Collaboration in Knowledge Sharing Over Peer-to-Peer Network. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 66:36–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kim J K, Kim H K and Cho Y H (2008) A User-oriented Contents Recommendation System in Peer-to-Peer Architecture. Expert Systems with Applications, 34:300–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sen S and Wang J (2004) Analyzing Peer-to-Peer Traffic Across Large Networks. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, 12(2):219–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Leung A and Kwok Y (2005) An Efficient and Practical Greedy Algorithm for Server-Peer Selection in Wireless Peer-to-Peer File Sharing Networks, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, MSN’05, vol. 3794, pp. 1016–1025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ardizzone E, Gatani L, La Cascia M, Lo Re G and Ortolani M (2007) Enhanced P2P Services Providing Multimedia Content. Advances in Multimedia, 1–12Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Androutsellis-theotokis S and Spinellis D (2004) A Survey of Peer-to-Peer Content Distribution Technologies. ACM Computing Surveys, 36(4):335–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Clerc M (2006) Particle Swarm Optimization, ISTE Publishing Company, LondonMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Abraham A, Guo H and Liu H (2006) Swarm Intelligence: Foundations, Perspectives and Applications. Swarm Intelligent Systems, Studies in Computational Intelligence, 3–25Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Schollmeier R (2001) A Definition of Peer-to-Peer Networking for the Classification of Peer-to-Peer Architectures and Applications, Proceedings of the First International August Conference on Peer-to-Peer Computing, pp. 101–102Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ghosal D, Poon B K and Kong K (2005) P2P Contracts: A Framework for Resource and Service Exchange. Future Generation Computer Systems, 21:333–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Koo S G, Kannan K and Lee C S (2006) A Genetic-algorithm-based Neighbor-selection Strategy for Hybrid Peer-to-Peer Networks. Future Generation Computer Systems, 22:732–741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Surana S, Godfrey B, Lakshminarayanan K, Karp R and Stoica I (2006) Load Balancing in Dynamic Structured Peer-to-Peer Systems. Performance Evaluation, 63:217–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Merrer E, Kermarrec A, and Massoulié L (2006) Peer to Peer Size Estimation in Large and Dynamic Networks: A Comparative Study, Proceedings of 15th IEEE International Symposium on High Performance Distributed Computing, pp. 7–17Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Meo M and Milan F (2008) QoS Content Management for P2P File-sharing Applications. Future Generation Computer Systems, 24:213–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Risson J and Moors T (2006) Survey of Research Towards Robust Peer-to-Peer Networks: Search Methods. Computer Networks, 50:3485–3521MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Habib A and Chuang J (2006) Service Differentiated Peer Selection: An Incentive Mechanism for Peer-to-Peer Media Streaming. IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, 8(3):610–623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lo V, Zhou D, Liu Y, GauthierDickey C S and Li J (2005) Scalable Supernode Selection in Peer-to-Peer Overlay Networks, Proceedings of the Second IEEE International Workshop on Hot Topics in Peer-to-Peer Systems, pp. 18–27Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kothapalli K and Scheideler C (2005) Supervised Peer-to-Peer Systems. Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Parallel Architectures, Algorithms and Networks, pp. 188–193Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Koulouris T, Henjes R, Tutschku K and de Meer H (2004) Implementation of Adaptive Control for P2P Overlays, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 2982, pp. 292–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Liu Y, Xiao L, Esfahanian A and Ni L M (2005) Approaching Optimal Peer-to-Peer Overlays, Proceedings of the 13th IEEE International Symposium on Modeling, Analysis, and Simulation of Computer and Telecommunication Systems, pp. 407–414Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Leung A K and Kwok Y (2008) On Localized Application-Driven Topology Control for Energy-Efficient Wireless Peer-to-Peer File Sharing. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, 7(1):66–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mastronarde N, Turaga D S and van der Schaar M (2007) Collaborative Resource Exchanges for Peer-to-Peer Video Streaming Over Wireless Mesh Networks. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 25(1):108–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Fenner T, Levene M, Loizou G and Roussos G (2007) A Stochastic Evolutionary Growth Model for Social Networks. Computer Networks, 51:4586-4595MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sacha J, Dowling J, Cunningham R and Meier R (2006) Discovery of Stable Peers in a Self-Organising Peer-to-Peer Gradient Topology, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 4025, pp. 70–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bisnik N and Abouzeid A A (2007) Optimizing Random Walk Search Algorithms in P2P Networks. Computer Networks, 51(6):1499–1514MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kersch P, Szabo R, Cheng L, Jean K and Galis A (2007) Stochastic Maintenance of Overlays in Structured P2P Systems. Computer Communications,  doi:10.1016/j.comcom.2007.08.017 Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Krishnamurthy B and Wang J (2001) Topology Modeling via Cluster Graphs, Proceedings of the 1st ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Internet Measurement, pp. 19–23Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Padmanabhan V N and Subramanian L (2001) An Investigation of Geographic Mapping Techniques for Internet Hosts, Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Communications, pp. 173–185Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Nakao A, Peterson L and Bavier A (2003) A Routing Underlay for Overlay Networks, Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Communications, pp. 11–18Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Xu X (2007) ABC: A Cluster-based Protocol for Resource Location in Peer-to-Peer Systems. Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing,  doi:10.1016/j.jpdc.2005.02.004 Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ramaswamy L, Gedik B and Liu L (2005) A Distributed Approach to Node Clustering in Decentralized Peer-to-Peer Networks. IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, 16(9):814–829CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Tewari S and L. Kleinrock L (2007) Optimal Search Performance in Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Networks With Clustered Demands. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 25(1):84–95Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kurmanowytsch R, Kirda E, Kerer C and Dustdar S (2003) OMNIX: A topology-independent P2P middleware, Proceedings of the 15th Conference on Advanced Information Systems Engineering, pp. 47–56Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Gupta R, Sekhri V and Somani A K (2006) CompuP2P: An Architecture for Internet Computing Using Peer-to-Peer Networks. IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, 17(11):1306–1320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Zeinalipour-Yazti D, Kalogeraki V and Gunopulos D (2007) pFusion: A P2P Architecture for Internet-Scale Content-Based Search and Retrieval. IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, 18(6):804–817CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ghanea-Hercock R A, Wang F and Sun Y (2006) Self-Organizing and Adaptive Peer-to-Peer Network. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics – Part B: Cybernetics, 36(6):1230–1236Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Biersack E W, Rodriguez P and Felber P (2004) Performance Analysis of Peer-to-Peer Networks for File Distribution, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, QofIS’04, vol. 3266, pp. 1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Carchiolo V, Malgeri M, Mangioni G and Nicosia V (2007) Emerging structures of P2P networks induced by social relationships,  doi:10.1016/j.comcom.2007.08.016
  47. 47.
    Zhuge H and Li X (2007) Peer-to-Peer in Metric Space and Semantic Space. IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, 19(6):759–771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Wang S, Chou H, Wei D and Kuo S (2007) On the Fundamental Performance Limits of Peer-to-Peer Data Replication in Wireless Ad hoc Networks. Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 25(1):211–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Qiu D and Sang W (2007) Global Stability of Peer-to-Peer File Sharing Systems. Computer Communications,  doi:10.1016/j.comcom.2007.08.012 Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Salman A, Ahmad I and Al-Madani S (2002) Particle Swarm Optimization for Task Assignment Problem. Microprocessors and Microsystems, 26:363–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Clerc M and Kennedy J (2002) The Particle Swarm – Explosion, Stability, and Convergence in a Multidimensional Complex Space. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 6(1):58–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Cristian T I (2003) The Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm: Convergence Analysis and Parameter Selection. Information Processing Letters, 85(6):317–325MATHMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    van den Bergh F and Engelbrecht A P (2006) A Study of Particle Swarm Optimization Particle Trajectories. Information Sciences, 176:937–971MATHMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Liu H, Abraham A and Clerc M (2007) Chaotic Dynamic Characteristics in Swarm Intelligence. Applied Soft Computing, 7:1019–1026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kennedy J and Eberhart R (2001) Swarm Intelligence. CA: Morgan Kaufmann PublishersGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Liu H, Li B, Ji Y and Sun T (2006) Particle Swarm Optimisation from lbest to gbest. Applied Soft Computing Technologies: The Challenge of Complexity, 537–545Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Grosan C, Abraham A and Nicoara M (2005) Search Optimization Using Hybrid Particle Sub-swarms and Evolutionary Algorithms. International Journal of Simulation Systems, Science & Technology, 6(10):60–79Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Jiang C W and Etorre B (2005) A Hybrid Method of Chaotic Particle Swarm Optimization and Linear Interior for Reactive Power Optimisation. Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, 68:57–65MATHMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Liu H and Abraham A (2007) An Hybrid Fuzzy Variable Neighborhood Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Solving Quadratic Assignment Problems. Journal of Universal Computer Science, 13(7):1032–1054Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Liang J J, Qin A K, Suganthan P N and Baskar S (2006) Comprehensive Learning Particle Swarm Optimizer for Global Optimization of Multimodal Functions. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 10(3):281–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Elshamy W, Emara H M and Bahgat A (2007) Clubs-based Particle Swarm Optimization, Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Swarm Intelligence Symposium, vol. 1, pp. 289–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Guo C and Tang H (2001) Global Convergence Properties of Evolution Stragtegies. Mathematica Numerica Sinica, 23(1):105–110MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    He R, Wang Y, Wang Q, Zhou J and Hu C (2005) An Improved Particle Swarm Optimization Based on Self-adaptive Escape Velocity. Journal of Software, 16(12):2036–2044MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Weisstein E W (2007) Borel-Cantelli Lemma, From MathWorld – A Wolfram Web Resource, http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Borel-CantelliLemma.html
  65. 65.
    Xu Z, Cheng G and Liang Y (1999) Search Capability for an Algebraic Crossover. Journal of Xi’an Jiaotong University, 33(10):88–99MATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Whitley L D (1991) Fundamental Principles of Deception in Genetic Search. Foundation of Genetic Algorithms. CA: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, pp. 221–241Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Mastrolilli M and Gambardella L M (2002) Effective Neighborhood Functions for the Flexible Job Shop Problem. Journal of Scheduling, 3(1):3–20MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Holland J H (1975) Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan PressGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Goldberg D E (1989) Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization and Machine Learning. Reading, MA: Addison-WesleyMATHGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Abraham A (2005) Evolutionary Computation. Handbook for Measurement Systems Design, pp. 920–931Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Norwegian Center of Excellence, Center of Excellence for Quantifiable Quantity of ServiceNorwegian University of Science and TechnologyTrondheimNorway

Personalised recommendations