Bladder, Urethra, and Urachus
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The urinary bladder is a hollow muscular organ with an inner lining of lamina propria covered on its surface by urothelium three to six cell layers thick. The urinary bladder performs the physiologic functions of storage and expulsion of urine via the urethra. The bladder and urethra are the sites of an astonishing array of pathologic conditions – congenital anomalies, a host of different inflammatory conditions, a number of acquired nonneoplastic lesions, and a broad spectrum of benign and malignant neoplasms. The urachus, if it remains partially or completely patent after birth, can be the site of various pathologic conditions, as well.