For renal masses smaller than 4 cm, open partial nephrectomy (OPN) has been the preferred surgical procedure to preserve renal function and minimize the long-term complications associated with renal insufficiency. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) has emerged as a viable alternative to OPN with comparable long-term oncologic and functional outcomes, but with the convalescence benefits of a minimally invasive approach. However, LPN is a technically challenging procedure, particularly in regard to intracorporeal sutured renal reconstruction under the time constraints of warm ischemia. Robotic assistance for partial nephrectomy with the da Vinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA) may facilitate some of the technical challenges of LPN by giving the surgeon three-dimensional stereoscopic vision, a tremor-free platform, and wristed instruments which help recapitulate the open technique.
Partial Nephrectomy Warm Ischemia Time Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy Renal Hilum Open Partial Nephrectomy
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