A Non-compaction Cardiomyopathy or Innocent LV Trabeculation?

  • Cataldo Pisicchio
  • Filippo M. Quattrini
  • Fernando Maria Di Paolo
  • Roberto Ciardo
  • Antonio Pelliccia


This is a 17-year-old male, elite tennis player. The athlete has been playing at national level since the age of 12, participating in several national and international events. For his results, he was selected for inclusion in the Italian national team. Therefore, he underwent medical evaluation in our Institute, in accord to the mandate of the Italian National Olympic Committee. The athlete had been previously evaluated and cleared at national pre-participation screening program. His training program included daily training sessions of approximately 7 hours (h).


Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Daily Training Session Segmental Wall Motion Abnormality Ventricular Late Potential Left Ventricular Noncompaction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Agmon Y, Connolly HM, Olson LJ, Khandheria BK, Seward JB. Noncompaction of the ventricular myocardium. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 1999, 12(10):859–863PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cavusoglu Y, Ata N, Timuralp B, Gorenek B, Goktekin O, Kudaiberdieva G, et al. Noncompaction of the ventricular myocardium: report of two cases with bicuspid aortic valve demonstrating poor prognosis and with prominent right ventricular involvement. Echocardiography 2003, 20(4):379–383PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chin TK, Perloff JK, Williams RG, Jue K, Mohrmann R. Isolated noncompaction of left ventricular myocardium. A study of eight cases. Circulation 1990, 82(2):507–513Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ritter M, Oechslin E, Sutsch G, Attenhofer C, Schneider J, Jenni R. Isolated noncompaction of the myocardium in adults. Mayo Clin Proc 1997, 72:26–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Digilio MC, Marino B, Bevilacqua M, Musolino AM, Giannotti A, Dallapiccola B. Genetic heterogeneity of isolated noncompaction of the left ventricular myocardium. Am J Med Genet 1999, 85(1):90–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Johnson MT, Zhang S, Gilkeson R, Ameduri R, Siwik E, Patel CR, et al. Intrafamilial variability of noncompaction of the ventricular myocardium. Am Heart J 2006, 151(5):1012 e7–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bleyl SB, Mumford BR, Brown-Harrison MC, Pagotto LT, Carey JC, Pysher TJ, et al. Xq28-linked noncompaction of the left ventricular myocardium: prenatal diagnosis and pathologic analysis of affected individuals. Am J Med Genet 1997, 72(3):257–265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bodiwala K, Miller AP, Nanda NC, Patel V, Vengala S, Mehmood F, et al. Live three-dimensional transthoracic echocardiographic assessment of ventricular noncompaction. Echocardiography 2005, 22(7):611–620PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Borreguero LJ, Corti R, de Soria RF, Osende JI, Fuster V, Badimon JJ. Images in cardiovascular medicine. Diagnosis of isolated noncompaction of the myocardium by magnetic resonance imaging. Circulation 2002, 105(21):E177–178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Canale J, Cortes Lawrenz J, Moreno Valenzuela FG. Spongy cardiomyopathy in an elderly woman. Echocardiographic description. Arch Cardiol Mex 2005, 75(2):184–187Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cavusoglu Y, Tunerir B, Birdane A, Timuralp B, Ata N, Gorenek B, et al. Transesophageal echocardiographic diagnosis of ventricular noncompaction associated with an atrial septal aneurysm in a patient with dilated cardiomyopathy of unknown etiology. Can J Cardiol 2005, 21(8):705–707PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Daimon Y, Watanabe S, Takeda S, Hijikata Y, Komuro I. Two-layered appearance of noncompaction of the ventricular myocardium on magnetic resonance imaging. Circ J 2002, 66(6):619–621PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Biagini E, Ragni L, Ferlito M, Pasquale F, Lofiego C, Leone O, et al. Different types of cardiomyopathy associated with isolated ventricular noncompaction. Am J Cardiol 2006, 98(6):821–824PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Finsterer J, Stolberger C, Kopsa W. Noncompaction in myotonic dystrophy type 1 on cardiac MRI. Cardiology 2005, 103(3):167–168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Finsterer J, Stollberger C. Cardiac MRI versus echocardiography in assessing noncompaction in children without neuromuscular disease. Pediatr Radiol 2006, 36(7):720–721; author reply 722–723PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Robson JMF, Anderson RH, Watkins H, Neubauer S, Petersen SE, Selvanayagam JB, Wiesmann F, Matthew D. Left ventricular non-compaction: insights from cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005, 46:101–105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ilercil A, Barack J, Malone MA, Barold SS, Herweg B. Association of noncompaction of left ventricular myocardium with Ebstein's anomaly. Echocardiography 2006, 23(5):432–433PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gambetta K, Cui W, El-Zein C, Roberson DA. Anomalous left coronary artery from the right sinus of valsalva and noncompaction of the left ventricle. Pediatr Cardiol 2008, 29(2): 434--437Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Friedman MA, Wiseman S, Haramati L, Gordon GM, Spevack DM. Noncompaction of the left ventricle in a patient with dextroversion. Eur J Echocardiogr 2007, 8(1):70–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Salerno JC, Chun TU, Rutledge JC. Sinus bradycardia, Wolff Parkinson White, and left ventricular noncompaction: an embryologic connection? Pediatr Cardiol 2008, 29(3): 679--682Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kawasaki T, Azuma A, Taniguchi T, Asada S, Kamitani T, Kawasaki S, et al. Heart rate variability in adult patients with isolated left ventricular noncompaction. Int J Cardiol 2005, 99(1):147–150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yan CW, Zhao SH, Lu MJ, Jiang SL, Wei YQ, Li SG, et al. Clinical characterizations of patients with isolated left ventricular noncompaction diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging. Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi 2006, 34(12):1081–1084PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Fazio G, Corrado G, Pizzuto C, Zachara E, Rapezzi C, Sulafa AK, et al. Supraventricular arrhythmias in noncompaction of left ventricle: is this a frequent complication? Int J Cardiol 2008, 127(2): 255--256Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Alehan D. Clinical features of isolated left ventricular noncompaction in children. Int J Cardiol 2004, 97(2):233–237PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Fichet J, Legras A, Bernard A, Babuty D. Aborted sudden cardiac death revealing isolated noncompaction of the left ventricle in a patient with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2007, 30(3):444–447PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Finsterer J, Stollberger C. Genetic heterogeneity of noncompaction. Chin Med J 2007, 120(18):1647; author reply 1648PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Nakamura T, Colbert M, Krenz M, Molkentin JD, Hahn HS, Dorn GW II, et al. Mediating ERK 1/2 signaling rescues congenital heart defects in a mouse model of Noonan syndrome. J Clin Invest 2007, 117(8):2123–2132PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Corrado G, Checcarelli N, Santarone M, Stollberger C, Finsterer J. Left ventricular hypertrabeculation/noncompaction with PMP22 duplication-based Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A. Cardiology 2006, 105(3):142–145PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cataldo Pisicchio
    • 1
  • Filippo M. Quattrini
    • 1
  • Fernando Maria Di Paolo
    • 2
  • Roberto Ciardo
    • 2
  • Antonio Pelliccia
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of Sport Medicine and Science, Italian National Olympic CommitteeDepartment of Sport MedicineRomeItaly
  2. 2.Institute of Sport Medicine and Science, Italian National Olympic CommitteeDepartment of Sport MedicineRomeItaly
  3. 3.Institute of Sport Medicine and Science, Italian National Olympic CommitteeRomeItaly

Personalised recommendations