Leo Tolstoy’s book Anna Karenina starts with the line:
Happy families are all alike; every unhappy family is unhappy in its own way.
In writing about moral codes in family and society, Tolstoy’s opening line summarizes a key theme in the novel. Many factors contribute to and influence the happiness of families. The failure of any one of these factors may doom the family to tragedy. Jared Diamond cites this Anna Karenina principle in his book Guns, Germs and Steel to characterize the barriers encountered by societies in the domestication of animals and why the failure or lack of any of these characteristics doomed their domestication – and the concomitant doom of societies.
KeywordsSwarm Intelligence Design Team Individual Designer Grammatical Form Cognitive Artifact
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