Acute Lung Injury and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

  • Michael Vish
  • Thomas P. Shanley


Lung Injury Respiratory Distress Syndrome Acute Lung Injury Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Respir Crit 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Ashbaugh DG, Bigelow DB, Petty TL. Acute respiratory distress in adults. Lancet 1967;2:319–323.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Petty TL, Ashbaugh DG. The adult respiratory distress syndrome. Clinical features, factors influencing prognosis and principles of management. Chest 1971;60(3):233–239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Murray JF, Matthay MA, Luce JM, Flick MR. An expanded definition of the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Am Rev Respir Dis 1988;138(3):720–723.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bernard GR, Artigas A, Brigham KL, Carlet J, Falke K, Hudson L, et al. The American-European Consensus Conference on ARDS. Definitions, mechanisms, relevant outcomes, and clinical trial coordination. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1994;149(3 Pt 1):818–824.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Flori HR, Glidden DV, Rutherford GW, Matthay MA. Pediatric acute lung injury: prospective evaluation of risk factors associated with mortality. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2005;171(9):995–1001.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    National Heart Lung Institute: Task force report on problems, research approaches, needs. NIH Publication No. 73-432. Washington, DC: National Heart Lung Institute; 1972:165–180.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lewandowski K. Epidemiological data challenge ARDS/ALI definition. Intensive Care Med 1999;25(9):884–886.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Valta P, Uusaro A, Nunes S, Ruokonen E, Takala J. Acute respiratory distress syndrome: frequency, clinical course, and costs of care. Crit Care Med 1999;27(11):2367–2374.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    McIntyre RC Jr, Pulido EJ, Bensard DD, Shames BD, Abraham E. Thirty years of clinical trials in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care Med 2000;28(9):3314–3331.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Villar J, Slutsky AS. The incidence of the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Am Rev Respir Dis 1989;140(3):814–816.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Goh AY, Chan PW, Lum LC, Roziah M. Incidence of acute respiratory distress syndrome: a comparison of two definitions. Arch Dis Child 1998;79(3):256–259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rubenfeld GD, Caldwell E, Peabody E, Weaver J, Martin DP, Neff M, et al. Incidence and outcomes of acute lung injury. N Engl J Med 2005;353(16):1685–1693.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    West J. Respiratory Physiology: The Essentials. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins; 1991.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pelosi P, Caironi P, Gattinoni L. Pulmonary and extrapulmonary forms of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2001;22(3):259–268.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gattinoni L, Pelosi P, Suter PM, Pedoto A, Vercesi P, Lissoni A. Acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by pulmonary and extrapulmonary disease. Different syndromes? Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998;158(1):3–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pelosi P, Gattinoni L. Acute respiratory distress syndrome of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary origin: fancy or reality? Intensive Care Med 2001;27(3):457–460.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Pelosi P, Goldner M, McKibben A, Adams A, Eccher G, Caironi P, et al. Recruitment and derecruitment during acute respiratory failure: an experimental study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001;164(1):122– 130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Eisner MD, Thompson T, Hudson LD, Luce JM, Hayden D, Schoenfeld D, et al. Efficacy of low tidal volume ventilation in patients with different clinical risk factors for acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001;164(2):231– 236.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Paret G, Ziv T, Barzilai A, Ben-Abraham R, Vardi A, Manisterski Y, et al. Ventilation index and outcome in children with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Pediatr Pulmonol 1998;26(2):125–128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Davis SL, Furman DP, Costarino AT, Jr. Adult respiratory distress syndrome in children: associated disease, clinical course, and predictors of death. J Pediatr 1993;123(1):35–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bojko T, Notterman DA, Greenwald BM, De Bruin WJ, Magid MS, Godwin T. Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure in children following bone marrow transplantation: an outcome and pathologic study. Crit Care Med 1995;23(4):755–759.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Fein AM, Lippmann M, Holtzman H, Eliraz A, Goldberg SK. The risk factors, incidence, and prognosis of ARDS following septicemia. Chest 1983;83(1):40–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hudson LD, Milberg JA, Anardi D, Maunder RJ. Clinical risks for development of the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1995;151(2 Pt 1):293–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pepe PE, Potkin RT, Reus DH, Hudson LD, Carrico CJ. Clinical predictors of the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Surg 1982;144(1):1 24–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Doyle RL, Szaflarski N, Modin GW, Wiener-Kronish JP, Matthay MA. Identification of patients with acute lung injury. Predictors of mortality. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1995;152(6 Pt 1):1818–1824.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ware LB, Matthay MA. The acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med 2000;342(18):1334–1349.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kaplan RL, Sahn SA, Petty TL. Incidence and outcome of the respiratory distress syndrome in Gram-negative sepsis. Arch Intern Med 1979;139(8):867–869.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Timmons OD, Dean JM, Vernon DD. Mortality rates and prognostic variables in children with adult respiratory distress syndrome. J Pediatr 1991;119(6):896–899.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    DeBruin W, Notterman DA, Magid M, Godwin T, Johnston S. Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure in infants and children: clinical and pathologic characteristics. Crit Care Med 1992;20(9):1223–1234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Holbrook PR, Taylor G, Pollack MM, Fields AI. Adult respiratory distress syndrome in children. Pediatr Clin North Am 1980;27(3):677–685.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bowler RP, Duda B, Chan ED, Enghild JJ, Ware LB, Matthay MA, et al. Proteomic analysis of pulmonary edema fluid and plasma in patients with acute lung injury. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2004;286(6):L1095–L1104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Olman MA, White KE, Ware LB, Simmons WL, Benveniste EN, Zhu S, et al. Pulmonary edema fluid from patients with early lung injury stimulates fibroblast proliferation through IL-1β-induced IL-6 expression. J Immunol 2004;172(4):2668–2677.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Rosseau S, Hammerl P, Maus U, Walmrath HD, Schutte H, Grimminger F, et al. Phenotypic characterization of alveolar monocyte recruitment in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2000;279(1):L25–L35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Meduri GU, Headley AS, Golden E, Carson SJ, Umberger RA, Kelso T, et al. Effect of prolonged methylprednisolone therapy in unresolving acute respiratory distress syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 1998;280(2):159–165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Meduri GU, Chinn AJ, Leeper KV, Wunderink RG, Tolley E, Winer-Muram HT, et al. Corticosteroid rescue treatment of progressive fibroproliferation in late ARDS. Patterns of response and predictors of outcome. Chest 1994;105(5):1516–1527.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Meduri GU, Tolley EA, Chinn A, Stentz F, Postlethwaite A. Procollagen types I and III aminoterminal propeptide levels during acute respiratory distress syndrome and in response to methylprednisolone treatment. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998;158(5 Pt 1):1432–1441.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gattinoni L, Carlesso E, Valenza F, Chiumello D, Caspani ML. Acute respiratory distress syndrome, the critical care paradigm: what we learned and what we forgot. Curr Opin Crit Care 2004;10(4):272–278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Mendez JL, Hubmayr RD. New insights into the pathology of acute respiratory failure. Curr Opin Crit Care 2005;11(1):29–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Marini JJ, Hotchkiss JR, Broccard AF. Bench-to-bedside review: microvascular and airspace linkage in ventilator-induced lung injury. Crit Care 2003;7(6):435–444.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Rosenthal C, Caronia C, Quinn C, Lugo N, Sagy M. A comparison among animal models of acute lung injury. Crit Care Med 1998; 26(5):912–916.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Abbas AK, Lichtman AH, Pober JS. Cellular and Molecular Immunology: Cytokines. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1994.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Tracey KJ, Lowry SF, Cerami A. Cachetin/TNF-alpha in septic shock and septic adult respiratory distress syndrome. Am Rev Respir Dis 1988;138(6):1377–1379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Okusawa S, Gelfand JA, Ikejima T, Connolly RJ, Dinarello CA. Interleukin 1 induces a shock-like state in rabbits. Synergism with tumor necrosis factor and the effect of cyclooxygenase inhibition. J Clin Invest 1988;81(4):1162–1172.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Krieg AM, Love-Homan L, Yi AK, Harty JT. CpG DNA induces sustained IL-12 expression in vivo and resistance to Listeria monocytogenes challenge. J Immunol 1998;161(5):2428–2434.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Brightbill HD, Modlin RL. Toll-like receptors: molecular mechanisms of the mammalian immune response. Immunology 2000;101(1):1–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Medzhitov R, Janeway CA, Jr. Innate immune recognition and control of adaptive immune responses. Semin Immunol 1998;10(5):351–353.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Medzhitov R, Janeway C Jr. Innate immune recognition: mechanisms and pathways. Immunol Rev 2000;173:89–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Medzhitov R, Janeway C Jr. The toll receptor family and microbial recognition. Trends Microbiol 2000;8(10):452–456.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Medzhitov R, Janeway CA Jr. How does the immune system distinguish self from nonself? Semin Immunol 2000;12(3):185–188, 257–344.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Beutler B, Milsark IW, Cerami AC. Passive immunization against cachectin/tumor necrosis factor protects mice from lethal effect of endotoxin. Science 1985;229(4716):869–871.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Beutler B, Cerami A. The biology of cachectin/TNF—A primary mediator of the host response. Annu Rev Immunol 1989;7:625–655.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Tracey KJ, Fong Y, Hesse DG, Manogue KR, Lee AT, Kuo GC, et al. Anti-cachectin/TNF monoclonal antibodies prevent septic shock during lethal bacteraemia. Nature 1987;330(6149):662–664.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Millar AB, Foley NM, Singer M, Johnson NM, Meager A, Rook GA. Tumour necrosis factor in bronchopulmonary secretions of patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome. Lancet 1989;2(8665):712–714.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hyers TM, Tricomi SM, Dettenmeier PA, Fowler AA. Tumor necrosis factor levels in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Am Rev Respir Dis 1991;144(2):268–271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Pugin J, Ricou B, Steinberg KP, Suter PM, Martin TR. Proinflammatory activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from patients with ARDS, a prominent role for interleukin-1. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1996;153(6 Pt 1):1850–1856.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Dinarello CA. Interleukin-1. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 1997;8(4): 253–265.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kunkel SL, Standiford T, Kasahara K, Strieter RM. Interleukin-8 (IL-8): the major neutrophil chemotactic factor in the lung. Exp Lung Res 1991;17(1):17–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Barsness KA, Bensard DD, Partrick DA, Calkins CM, Hendrickson RJ, Banerjee A, et al. IL-1beta induces an exaggerated pro- and anti-inflammatory response in peritoneal macrophages of children compared with adults. Pediatr Surg Int 2004;20(4):238–242.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Oppenheim JJ, Zachariae CO, Mukaida N, Matsushima K. Properties of the novel proinflammatory supergene ‘‘intercrine’’ cytokine family. Annu Rev Immunol 1991;9:617–648.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Zlotnik A, Yoshie O. Chemokines: a new classification system and their role in immunity. Immunity 2000;12(2):121–127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Greenberger MJ, Strieter RM, Kunkel SL, Danforth JM, Laichalk LL, McGillicuddy DC, et al. Neutralization of macrophage inflammatory protein-2 attenuates neutrophil recruitment and bacterial clearance in murine Klebsiella pneumonia. J Infect Dis 1996;173(1):159–165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Mehrad B, Standiford TJ. Role of cytokines in pulmonary antimicrobial host defense. Immunol Res 1999;20(1):15–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Standiford TJ, Strieter RM, Greenberger MJ, Kunkel SL. Expression and regulation of chemokines in acute bacterial pneumonia. Biol Signals 1996;5(4):203–208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Mehrad B, Strieter RM, Moore TA, Tsai WC, Lira SA, Standiford TJ. CXC chemokine receptor-2 ligands are necessary components of neutrophil-mediated host defense in invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. J Immunol 1999;163(11):6086–6094.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Tsai WC, Strieter RM, Mehrad B, Newstead MW, Zeng X, Standiford TJ. CXC chemokine receptor CXCR2 is essential for protective innate host response in murine Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. Infect Immun 2000;68(7):4289–4296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Miller EJ, Cohen AB, Nagao S, Griffith D, Maunder RJ, Martin TR, et al. Elevated levels of NAP-1/interleukin-8 are present in the airspaces of patients with the adult respiratory distress syndrome and are associated with increased mortality. Am Rev Respir Dis 1992;146(2): 427–432.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Belperio JA, Keane MP, Burdick MD, Londhe V, Xue YY, Li K, et al. Critical role for CXCR2 and CXCR2 ligands during the pathogenesis of ventilator-induced lung injury. J Clin Invest 2002;110(11):1703–1716.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Speyer CL, Gao H, Rancilio NJ, Neff TA, Huffnagle GB, Sarma JV, et al. Novel chemokine responsiveness and mobilization of neutrophils during sepsis. Am J Pathol 2004;165(6):2187–2196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Guo RF, Riedemann NC, Ward PA. Role of C5a-C5aR interaction in sepsis. Shock 2004;21(1):1–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Kunkel SL, Strieter RM. Cytokine networking in lung inflammation. Hosp Pract (Off Ed) 1990;25(10):63–66, 69, 73–76.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Arai KI, Lee F, Miyajima A, Miyatake S, Arai N, Yokota T. Cytokines: coordinators of immune and inflammatory responses. Annu Rev Biochem 1990;59:783–836.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Shanley TP, Warner RL, Ward PA. The role of cytokines and adhesion molecules in the development of inflammatory injury. Mol Med Today 1995;1(1):40–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Shanley TP, Schmal H, Friedl HP, Jones ML, Ward PA. Role of macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha) in acute lung injury in rats. J Immunol 1995;154(9):4793–4802.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Hogg JC, Doerschuk CM. Leukocyte traffic in the lung. Annu Rev Physiol 1995;57:97–114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Donnelly SC, Haslett C, Dransfield I, Robertson CE, Carter DC, Ross JA, et al. Role of selectins in development of adult respiratory distress syndrome. Lancet 1994;344(8917):215–219.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Zimmerman GA, Prescott SM, McIntyre TM. Endothelial cell interactions with granulocytes: tethering and signaling molecules. Immunol Today 1992;13(3):93–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Albelda SM, Smith CW, Ward PA. Adhesion molecules and inflammatory injury. FASEB J 1994;8(8):504–512.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Lukacs NW, Ward PA. Inflammatory mediators, cytokines, and adhesion molecules in pulmonary inflammation and injury. Adv Immunol 1996;62:257–304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Ford-Hutchinson AW, Bray MA, Doig MV, Shipley ME, Smith MJ. Leukotriene B, a potent chemokinetic and aggregating substance released from polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Nature 1980;286(5770): 264–265.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Grutz G. New insights into the molecular mechanism of interleukin-10–mediated immunosuppression. J Leukocyte Biol 2005;77(1): 3–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Shanley TP, Schmal H, Friedl HP, Jones ML, Ward PA. Regulatory effects of intrinsic IL-10 in IgG immune complex–induced lung injury. J Immunol 1995;154(7):3454–3460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Rennick DM, Fort MM, Davidson NJ. Studies with IL-10–/– mice: an overview. J Leukocyte Biol 1997;61(4):389–396.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Donnelly SC, Strieter RM, Reid PT, Kunkel SL, Burdick MD, Armstrong I, et al. The association between mortality rates and decreased concentrations of interleukin-10 and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in the lung fluids of patients with the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Ann Intern Med 1996;125(3):191–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Bone RC. Sir Isaac Newton, sepsis, SIRS, and CARS. Crit Care Med 1996;24(7):1125–1128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Bone RC. Why sepsis trials fail. JAMA 1996;276(7):565–566.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Zeni F, Freeman B, Natanson C. Anti-inflammatory therapies to treat sepsis and septic shock: a reassessment. Crit Care Med 1997;25(7): 1095–1100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Angus DC, Fink MPE. Cellular and molecular biology for intensivists: a primer. Crit Care Med 2005;33(12):S399–S560.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Ambrosino N. Noninvasive mechanical ventilation in acute respiratory failure. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis 1996;51(6):514–518.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Abou-Shala N, Meduri U. Noninvasive mechanical ventilation in patients with acute respiratory failure. Crit Care Med 1996;24(4):705– 715.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Wysocki M, Tric L, Wolff MA, Millet H, Herman B. Noninvasive pressure support ventilation in patients with acute respiratory failure. A randomized comparison with conventional therapy. Chest 1995;107(3):761–768.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Rocker GM, Mackenzie MG, Williams B, Logan PM. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation: successful outcome in patients with acute lung injury/ARDS. Chest 1999;115(1):173–177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Patrick W, Webster K, Ludwig L, Roberts D, Wiebe P, Younes M. Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation in acute respiratory distress without prior chronic respiratory failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1996;153(3):1005–1011.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Amato MB, Barbas CS, Medeiros DM, Schettino Gde P, Lorenzi Filho G, Kairalla RA, et al. Beneficial effects of the "open lung approach" with low distending pressures in acute respiratory distress syndrome. A prospective randomized study on mechanical ventilation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1995;152(6 Pt 1):1835–1846.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Brower RG, Lanken PN, MacIntyre N, Matthay MA, Morris A, Ancukiewicz M, et al. Higher versus lower positive end-expiratory pressures in patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med 2004;351(4):327–336.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Marcy TW, Marini JJ. Inverse ratio ventilation in ARDS. Rationale and implementation. Chest 1991;100(2):494–504.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Armstrong BW Jr, MacIntyre NR. Pressure-controlled, inverse ratio ventilation that avoids air trapping in the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care Med 1995;23(2):279–285.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Lessard MR, Guerot E, Lorino H, Lemaire F, Brochard L. Effects of pressure-controlled with different I:E ratios versus volume-controlled ventilation on respiratory mechanics, gas exchange, and hemodynamics in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome. Anesthesiology 1994;80(5):983–991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Mercat A, Titiriga M, Anguel N, Richard C, Teboul JL. Inverse ratio ventilation (I/E = 2/1) in acute respiratory distress syndrome: a six-hour controlled study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1997;155(5):1637–1642.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Krishnan JA, Brower RG. High-frequency ventilation for acute lung injury and ARDS. Chest 2000;118(3):795–807.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Arnold JH, Hanson JH, Toro-Figuero LO, Gutierrez J, Berens RJ, Anglin DL. Prospective, randomized comparison of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation and conventional mechanical ventilation in pediatric respiratory failure. Crit Care Med 1994;22(10):1530–1539.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Arnold JH, Anas NG, Luckett P, Cheifetz IM, Reyes G, Newth CJ, et al. High-frequency oscillatory ventilation in pediatric respiratory failure: a multicenter experience. Crit Care Med 2000;28(12):3913–3999.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Fedora M, Klimovic M, Seda M, Dominik P, Nekvasil R. Effect of early intervention of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation on the outcome in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome. Bratisl Lek Listy 2000;101(1):8–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Wispe JR, Roberts RJ. Molecular basis of pulmonary oxygen toxicity. Clin Perinatol 1987;14(3):651–666.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    dos Santos CC, Slutsky AS. Mechanotransduction, ventilator-induced lung injury and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Intensive Care Med 2000;26(5):638–642.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Lee WL, Slutsky AS. Ventilator-induced lung injury and recommendations for mechanical ventilation of patients with ARDS. Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2001;22(3):269–280.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Lin CY, Zhang H, Cheng KC, Slutsky AS. Mechanical ventilation may increase susceptibility to the development of bacteremia. Crit Care Med 2003;31(5):1429–1434.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Imai Y, Parodo J, Kajikawa O, de Perrot M, Fischer S, Edwards V, et al. Injurious mechanical ventilation and end-organ epithelial cell apoptosis and organ dysfunction in an experimental model of acute respiratory distress syndrome. JAMA 2003;289(16):2104–2112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Plotz FB, Vreugdenhil HA, Slutsky AS, Zijlstra J, Heijnen CJ, van Vught H. Mechanical ventilation alters the immune response in children without lung pathology. Intensive Care Med 2002;28(4):486–492.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Slutsky AS. The acute respiratory distress syndrome, mechanical ventilation, and the prone position. N Engl J Med 2001;345(8):610–612.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Veldhuizen RA, Slutsky AS, Joseph M, McCaig L. Effects of mechanical ventilation of isolated mouse lungs on surfactant and inflammatory cytokines. Eur Respir J 2001;17(3):488–494.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Ranieri VM, Giunta F, Suter PM, Slutsky AS. Mechanical ventilation as a mediator of multisystem organ failure in acute respiratory distress syndrome. JAMA 2000;284(1):43–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Slutsky AS. Lung injury caused by mechanical ventilation. Chest 1999;116(1 Suppl):9S–15S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Ranieri VM, Suter PM, Tortorella C, De Tullio R, Dayer JM, Brienza A, et al. Effect of mechanical ventilation on inflammatory mediators in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 1999;282(1):54–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Mehta S, Slutsky AS. Mechanical ventilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome: evolving concepts. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis 1998;53(6):647–653.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Slutsky AS, Tremblay LN. Multiple system organ failure. Is mechanical ventilation a contributing factor? Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998;157(6 Pt 1):1721–1725.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Slutsky AS. Mechanical ventilation. American College of Chest Physicians’ Consensus Conference. Chest 1993;104(6):1833–1859.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Kolobow T, Moretti MP, Fumagalli R, Mascheroni D, Prato P, Chen V, et al. Severe impairment in lung function induced by high peak airway pressure during mechanical ventilation. An experimental study. Am Rev Respir Dis 1987;135(2):312–315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Chiumello D, Pristine G, Slutsky AS. Mechanical ventilation affects local and systemic cytokines in an animal model of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999;160(1):109– 116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    The Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network. Ventilation with lower tidal volumes as compared with traditional tidal volumes for acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med 2000;342(18):1301–1308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Brochard L, Roudot-Thoraval F, Roupie E, Delclaux C, Chastre J, Fernandez-Mondejar E, et al. Tidal volume reduction for prevention of ventilator-induced lung injury in acute respiratory distress syndrome. The Multicenter Trail Group on Tidal Volume reduction in ARDS. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998;158(6):1831–1838.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Brower RG, Shanholtz CB, Fessler HE, Shade DM, White P Jr, Wiener CM, et al. Prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial comparing traditional versus reduced tidal volume ventilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome patients. Crit Care Med 1999;27(8):1492–1498.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Hickling KG, Henderson SJ, Jackson R. Low mortality associated with low volume pressure limited ventilation with permissive hypercapnia in severe adult respiratory distress syndrome. Intensive Care Med 1990;16(6):372–377.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Ni Chonghaile M, Higgins B, Laffey JG. Permissive hypercapnia: role in protective lung ventilatory strategies. Curr Opin Crit Care 2005;11(1):56–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Laffey JG, O’Croinin D, McLoughlin P, Kavanagh BP. Permissive hypercapnia—role in protective lung ventilatory strategies. Intensive Care Med 2004;30(3):347–356.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Sevransky JE, Levy MM, Marini JJ. Mechanical ventilation in sepsis-induced acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome: an evidence-based review. Crit Care Med 2004;32(11 Suppl):S548–S553.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Broccard AF, Hotchkiss JR, Vannay C, Markert M, Sauty A, Feihl F, et al. Protective effects of hypercapnic acidosis on ventilator-induced lung injury. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001;164(5):802–806.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Sinclair SE, Kregenow DA, Lamm WJ, Starr IR, Chi EY, Hlastala MP. Hypercapnic acidosis is protective in an in vivo model of ventilator-induced lung injury. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2002;166(3):403–408.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Laffey JG, Tanaka M, Engelberts D, Luo X, Yuan S, Tanswell AK, et al. Therapeutic hypercapnia reduces pulmonary and systemic injury following in vivo lung reperfusion. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000;162(6):2287–2294.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    O’Croinin D, Ni Chonghaile M, Higgins B, Laffey JG. Bench-to-bedside review: permissive hypercapnia. Crit Care 2005;9(1):51–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Pappert D, Rossaint R, Slama K, Gruning T, Falke KJ. Influence of positioning on ventilation–perfusion relationships in severe adult respiratory distress syndrome. Chest 1994;106(5):1511–1516.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Curley MA, Thompson JE, Arnold JH. The effects of early and repeated prone positioning in pediatric patients with acute lung injury. Chest 2000;118(1):156–163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Casado-Flores J, Martinez de Azagra A, Ruiz-Lopez MJ, Ruiz M, Serrano A. Pediatric ARDS: effect of supine-prone postural changes on oxygenation. Intensive Care Med 2002;28(12):1792–1796.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Curley MA, Hibberd PL, Fineman LD, Wypij D, Shih MC, Thompson JE, et al. Effect of prone positioning on clinical outcomes in children with acute lung injury: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2005;294(2):229–237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Gattinoni L, Tognoni G, Pesenti A, Taccone P, Mascheroni D, Labarta V, et al. Effect of prone positioning on the survival of patients with acute respiratory failure. N Engl J Med 2001;345(8):568–573.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Sznajder JI. Alveolar edema must be cleared for the acute respiratory distress syndrome patient to survive. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001;163(6):1293–1294.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Ware LB, Matthay MA. Alveolar fluid clearance is impaired in the majority of patients with acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001;163(6):1376–1383.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Weigelt JA, Norcross JF, Borman KR, Snyder WH 3rd. Early steroid therapy for respiratory failure. Arch Surg 1985;120(5):536–540.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Bone RC, Fisher CJ Jr, Clemmer TP, Slotman GJ, Metz CA. Early methylprednisolone treatment for septic syndrome and the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Chest 1987;92(6):1032–1036.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Bernard GR, Luce JM, Sprung CL, Rinaldo JE, Tate RM, Sibbald WJ, et al. High-dose corticosteroids in patients with the adult respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med 1987;317(25):1565–1570.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Bogdan C, Vodovotz Y, Nathan C. Macrophage deactivation by interleukin 10. J Exp Med 1991;174(6):1549–1555.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Bogdan C, Paik J, Vodovotz Y, Nathan C. Contrasting mechanisms for suppression of macrophage cytokine release by transforming growth factor-beta and interleukin-10. J Biol Chem 1992;267(32):23301–23308.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    DeVries A, Semchuk WM, Betcher JG. Ketoconazole in the prevention of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Pharmacotherapy 1998;18(3):581–587.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Williams JG, Maier RV. Ketoconazole inhibits alveolar macrophage production of inflammatory mediators involved in acute lung injury (adult respiratory distress syndrome). Surgery 1992;112(2):270–277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of lisofylline for early treatment of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care Med 2002;30(1):1–6.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    de Waal Malefyt R, Abrams J, Bennett B, Figdor CG, de Vries JE. Interleukin 10(IL-10) inhibits cytokine synthesis by human monocytes: an autoregulatory role of IL-10 produced by monocytes. J Exp Med 1991;174(5):1209–1220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Krakauer T. IL-10 inhibits the adhesion of leukocytic cells to IL-1-activated human endothelial cells. Immunol Lett 1995;45(1–2):61–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Wang P, Wu P, Siegel MI, Egan RW, Billah MM. Interleukin (IL)-10 inhibits nuclear factor kappa B (NF kappa B) activation in human monocytes. IL-10 and IL-4 suppress cytokine synthesis by different mechanisms. J Biol Chem 1995;270(16):9558–9563.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Lentsch AB, Shanley TP, Sarma V, Ward PA. In vivo suppression of NF-kappa B and preservation of I kappa B alpha by interleukin-10 and interleukin-13. J Clin Invest 1997;100(10):2443–2448.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Cassatella MA, Meda L, Gasperini S, Calzetti F, Bonora S. Interleukin 10 (IL-10) upregulates IL-1 receptor antagonist production from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes by delaying mRNA degradation. J Exp Med 1994;179(5):1695–1699.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Brown CY, Lagnado CA, Vadas MA, Goodall GJ. Differential regulation of the stability of cytokine mRNAs in lipopolysaccharide-activated blood monocytes in response to interleukin-10. J Biol Chem 1996;271(33):20108–20112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Fisher CJ, Jr., Agosti JM, Opal SM, Lowry SF, Balk RA, Sadoff JC, et al. Treatment of septic shock with the tumor necrosis factor receptor:Fc fusion protein. The Soluble TNF Receptor Sepsis Study Group. N Engl J Med 1996;334(26):1697–1702.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Lemeshow S, Teres D, Moseley S. Statistical issues in clinical sepsis trials. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins; 1996.Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Berthiaume Y, Folkesson HG, Matthay MA. Lung edema clearance: 20 years of progress: invited review: alveolar edema fluid clearance in the injured lung. J Appl Physiol 2002;93(6):2207–2213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Matthay MA, Clerici C, Saumon G. Invited review: active fluid clearance from the distal air spaces of the lung. J Appl Physiol 2002; 93(4):1533–1541.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Modelska K, Matthay MA, Brown LA, Deutch E, Lu LN, Pittet JF. Inhibition of beta-adrenergic–dependent alveolar epithelial clearance by oxidant mechanisms after hemorrhagic shock. Am J Physiol 1999;276(5 Pt 1):L844–L857.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Pittet JF, Wiener-Kronish JP, McElroy MC, Folkesson HG, Matthay MA. Stimulation of lung epithelial liquid clearance by endogenous release of catecholamines in septic shock in anesthetized rats. J Clin Invest 1994;94(2):663–671.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Campbell AR, Folkesson HG, Berthiaume Y, Gutkowska J, Suzuki S, Matthay MA. Alveolar epithelial fluid clearance persists in the presence of moderate left atrial hypertension in sheep. J Appl Physiol 1999;86(1):139–151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Carter EP, Duvick SE, Wendt CH, Dunitz J, Nici L, Wangensteen OD, et al. Hyperoxia increases active alveolar Na+ resorption in vivo and type II cell Na,K-ATPase in vitro. Chest 1994;105(3 Suppl):75S–78S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Minakata Y, Suzuki S, Grygorczyk C, Dagenais A, Berthiaume Y. Impact of beta-adrenergic agonist on Na+ channel and Na+-K+/ATPase expression in alveolar type II cells. Am J Physiol 1998;275(2 Pt 1):L414–L422.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Folkesson HG, Norlin A, Wang Y, Abedinpour P, Matthay MA. Dexamethasone and thyroid hormone pretreatment upregulate alveolar epithelial fluid clearance in adult rats. J Appl Physiol 2000;88(2):416–424.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Viget NB, Guery BP, Ader F, Neviere R, Alfandari S, Creuzy C, et al. Keratinocyte growth factor protects against Pseudomonas aeruginosa–induced lung injury. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2000;279(6):L1199–L1209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Stern M, Ulrich K, Robinson C, Copeland J, Griesenbach U, Masse C, et al. Pretreatment with cationic lipid-mediated transfer of the Na+K+-ATPase pump in a mouse model in vivo augments resolution of high permeability pulmonary oedema. Gene Ther 2000;7(11):960–966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Kumasaka T, Quinlan WM, Doyle NA, Condon TP, Sligh J, Takei F, et al. Role of the intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1) in endotoxin-induced pneumonia evaluated using ICAM-1 antisense oligonucleotides, anti-ICAM-1 monoclonal antibodies, and ICAM-1 mutant mice. J Clin Invest 1996;97(10):2362–2369.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Doerschuk CM, Quinlan WM, Doyle NA, Bullard DC, Vestweber D, Jones ML, et al. The role of P-selectin and ICAM-1 in acute lung injury as determined using blocking antibodies and mutant mice. J Immunol 1996;157(10):4609–4614.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Ridings PC, Windsor AC, Jutila MA, Blocher CR, Fisher BJ, Sholley MM, et al. A dual-binding antibody to E- and L-selectin attenuates sepsis-induced lung injury. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1995;152(1):247–253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Mulligan MS, Miyasaka M, Tamatani T, Jones ML, Ward PA. Requirements for L-selectin in neutrophil-mediated lung injury in rats. J Immunol 1994;152(2):832–840.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Mulligan MS, Polley MJ, Bayer RJ, Nunn MF, Paulson JC, Ward PA. Neutrophil-dependent acute lung injury. Requirement for P-selectin (GMP-140). J Clin Invest 1992;90(4):1600–1607.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Etzioni A, Alon R. Leukocyte adhesion deficiency III: a group of integrin activation defects in hematopoietic lineage cells. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2004;4(6):485–490.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Kinashi T, Aker M, Sokolovsky-Eisenberg M, Grabovsky V, Tanaka C, Shamri R, et al. LAD-III, a leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome associated with defective Rap1 activation and impaired stabilization of integrin bonds. Blood 2004;103(3):1033–1036.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Matsumoto T, Yokoi K, Mukaida N, Harada A, Yamashita J, Watanabe Y, et al. Pivotal role of interleukin-8 in the acute respiratory distress syndrome and cerebral reperfusion injury. J Leukocyte Biol 1997;62(5):581–587.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Folkesson HG, Matthay MA, Hebert CA, Broaddus VC. Acid aspiration-induced lung injury in rabbits is mediated by interleukin-8–dependent mechanisms. J Clin Invest 1995;96(1):107–116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Mulligan MS, Jones ML, Bolanowski MA, Baganoff MP, Deppeler CL, Meyers DM, et al. Inhibition of lung inflammatory reactions in rats by an anti-human IL-8 antibody. J Immunol 1993;150(12):5585–5595.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Kurdowska A, Noble JM, Steinberg KP, Ruzinski JT, Hudson LD, Martin TR. Anti-interleukin 8 autoantibody: interleukin 8 complexes in the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Relationship between the complexes and clinical disease activity. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001;163(2):463–468.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Krupa A, Kato H, Matthay MA, Kurdowska AK. Proinflammatory activity of anti-IL-8 autoantibody:IL-8 complexes in alveolar edema fluid from patients with acute lung injury. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2004;286(6):L1105–L1113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Ponath PD. Chemokine receptor antagonists: novel therapeutics for inflammation and AIDS. Expert Opin Invest Drugs 1998;7(1):1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Mehta NM, Arnold JH. Genetic polymorphisms in acute respiratory distress syndrome: new approach to an old problem. Crit Care Med 2005;33(10):2443–2445.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Floros J, Pavlovic J. Genetics of acute respiratory distress syndrome: challenges, approaches, surfactant proteins as candidate genes. Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2003;24(2):161–168.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Shanley TP, Wong HR. Molecular genetics in the pediatric intensive care unit. Crit Care Clin 2003;19(3):577–594.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Lin Z, Pearson C, Chinchilli V, Pietschmann SM, Luo J, Pison U, et al. Polymorphisms of human SP-A, SP-B, and SP-D genes: association of SP-B Thr131Ile with ARDS. Clin Genet 2000;58(3):181–191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Nogee LM, Dunbar AE, 3rd, Wert SE, Askin F, Hamvas A, Whitsett JA. A mutation in the surfactant protein C gene associated with familial interstitial lung disease. N Engl J Med 2001;344(8):573–579.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Stuber F, Petersen M, Bokelmann F, Schade U. A genomic polymorphism within the tumor necrosis factor locus influences plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentrations and outcome of patients with severe sepsis. Crit Care Med 1996;24(3):381–384.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Mira JP, Cariou A, Grall F, Delclaux C, Losser MR, Heshmati F, et al. Association of TNF2, a TNF-alpha promoter polymorphism, with septic shock susceptibility and mortality: a multicenter study. JAMA 1999;282(6):561–568.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    King LS, Nielsen S, Agre P. Aquaporin-1 water channel protein in lung: ontogeny, steroid-induced expression, and distribution in rat. J Clin Invest 1996;97(10):2183–2191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Ma T, Fukuda N, Song Y, Matthay MA, Verkman AS. Lung fluid transport in aquaporin-5 knockout mice. J Clin Invest 2000;105(1):93–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Song Y, Fukuda N, Bai C, Ma T, Matthay MA, Verkman AS. Role of aquaporins in alveolar fluid clearance in neonatal and adult lung, and in oedema formation following acute lung injury: studies in transgenic aquaporin null mice. J Physiol 2000;525 Pt 3:771–779.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Song Y, Ma T, Matthay MA, Verkman AS. Role of aquaporin-4 in airspace-to-capillary water permeability in intact mouse lung measured by a novel gravimetric method. J Gen Physiol 2000;115(1):17–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Vish
    • 1
  • Thomas P. Shanley
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Critical Care MedicineCincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical CenterCincinnatiUSA
  2. 2.Director, Division of Critical Care Medicine C.S. Mott Children’s HospitalUniversity of Michigan Medical CenterAnn ArborUSA

Personalised recommendations