Advertisement

Disorders of the Pediatric Chest

  • Margaret A. Chase
  • Derek S. Wheeler
Chapter

Keywords

Pulmonary Edema Pediatric Intensive Care Unit Chest Tube Pleural Space Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Martin JA, Kochanek KD, Strobino DM, Guyer B, MacDorman MF. Annual summary of vital statistics—2003. Pediatrics 2005;115: 619–634.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gregory GA, ed. Clinics in Critical Care Medicine: Respiratory Failure in the Child. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1981:vii.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Vidyasagar D. Clinical diagnosis of respiratory failure in infants and children. In: Gregory GA, ed. Clinics in Critical Care Medicine: Respiratory Failure in the Child. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1981:1.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Finder JD. Primary bronchomalacia in infants and children. J Pediatr 1997;130:59–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Masters IB, Chang AB, Patterson L, et al. Series of laryngomalacia, tracheomalacia, and bronchomalacia disorders and their associations with other conditions in children. Pediatr Pulmonol 2002;34:189–195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Austin J, Ali T. Tracheomalacia and bronchomalacia in children: pathophysiology, assessment, treatment, and anaesthesia management. Paediatr Anaesth 2003;3–11.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Boogard R, Huiksmans SH, Pijnenburg MW, Tiddens HA, de Jongste JC, Merkus PJ. Tracheomalacia and bronchomalacia in children: Incidence and patient characteristics. Chest 2005;128:3391–3397.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Yalcin E, Dogru D, Ozcelik U, Kiper N, Aslan AT, Gozacan A. Tracheomalacia and bronchomalacia in 34 children: clinical and radiologic profiles and associations with other diseases. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2005;44:777–781.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mair EA, Parsons DS, Lally KP. Treatment of severe bronchomalacia with expanding endobronchial stents. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1990;116:1087–1090.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mutabagani KH, Menke JA, McCoy KS, Besner GE. Bronchopexy for congenital bronchomalacia in the newborn. J Pediatr Surg 1999;34:1300–1303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ahel V, Banac S, Rozmanic V, Vukas D, Drescik I, Ahel VA Jr. Aortopexy and bronchopexy for the management of severe tracheomalacia and bronchomalacia. Pediatr Int 2003;45:104–106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pillai JB, Smith J, Hasan A, Spencer D. Review of pediatric airway malacia and its management, with emphasis on stenting. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2005;27:35–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Valerie EP, Durrant AC, Forte V, Wales P, Chait P, Kim PC. A decade of using intraluminal tracheal/bronchial stents in the management of tracheomalacia and/or bronchomalacia: is it better than aortopexy? J Pediatr Surg 2005;40:904–907.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Doolittle AM, Mair EA. Tracheal bronchus: classification, endoscopic analysis, and airway management. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2002;126:240–243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sanchez I, Navarro H, Mendez M, Holmgren N, Caussade S. Clinical characteristics of children with tracheobronchial anomalies. Pediatr Pulmonol 2003;35:288–291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Berrocal T, Madrid C, Novo S, Gutierrez J, Arjonilla A, Gomez-Leon N. Congenital anomalies of the tracheobronchial tree, lung, and mediastinum: embryology, radiology, and pathology. Radiographics 2004;24:e17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Le Roux BT. Anatomical abnormalities of the right upper lobe bronchus. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1962;44:225–227.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Atwell SW. Major anomalies of the tracheobronchial tree: with a list of minor abnormalities. Dis Chest 1967;52:611–615.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Barat M, Konrad HR. Tracheal bronchus. Am J Otolaryngol 1987;8:118–122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    O’Sullivan BP, Frassica JJ, Rayder SM. Tracheal bronchus: a cause of prolonged atelectasis in intubated children. Chest 1998;113:537–540.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Siegel MJ, Shackelford FG, Francis RS, et al. Tracheal bronchus. Radiology 1979;130:353–355.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    McLaughlin FJ, Strieder DJ, Harris GBC, et al. Tracheal bronchus: association with respiratory morbidity in childhood. J Pediatr 1985;106:751–755.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bertrand P, Navarro H, Caussade S, Holmgren N, Sanchez I. Airway anomalies in children with Down syndrome: endoscopic findings. Pediatr Pulmonol 2003;36:137–141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jederlinic PJ, Sicilian LS, Baigelman W, Gaensler EA. Congenital bronchial atresia. A report of 4 cases and a review of the literature. Medicine (Baltimore) 1987;66:73–83.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ward S, Morcos SK. Congenital bronchial atresia—presentation of three cases and a pictorial review. Clin Radiol 1999;54:144–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Shanmugam G, MacArthur K, Pollock JC. Congenital lung malformations—antenatal and postnatal evaluation and management. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2005;27:45–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Morikawa N, Kuroda T, Honna T, et al. Congenital bronchial atresia in infants and children. J Pediatr Surg 2005;40:1822–1826.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Krummel TK. Congenital malformations of the lower respiratory tract. In: Chernick V, Boat TF, eds. Kendig’s Disorders of the Respiratory Tract in Children, 6th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1998:305–307.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Schwartz MZ, Ramachandran P. Congenital malformations of the lung and mediastinum—a quarter century of experience from a single institution. J Pediatr Surg 1997;32:44–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Laberge JM, Puligandla P, Flageole H. Asymptomatic congenital lung malformations. Semin Pediatr Surg 2005;14:16–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ayed AK, Owayed A. Pulmonary resection in infants for congenital pulmonary malformations. Chest 2003;124:98–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ozcelik U, Gocmen A, Kiper N, Dogru D, Dilber E, Yalcin EG. Congenital lobar emphysema: Evaluation and long-term follow-up of thirty cases at a single center. Pediatr Pulmonol 2003;35:384–391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mendeloff EN. Sequestrations, congenital cystic adenomatoid malformations, and congenital lobar emphysema. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2004;16:209–214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sagy M, Silver P, Nimkoff L, Zahtz G, Amato JJ, Bierman FZ. Pediatric intrathoracic large airway obstruction: diagnostic and therapeutic considerations. Pediatr Emerg Care 1994;10:351–358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Doull IJ, Connett GJ, Warner JO. Bronchoscopic appearance of congenital lobar emphysema. Pediatr Pulmonol 1996;21:195–197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Al-Bassam A, Al-Rabeeeah A, Al-Nassar S, et al. Congenital cystic disease of the lung in infants and children (experience with 57 cases). Eur J Pediatr Surg 1999;9:364–368.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Yoshioka H, Aoyama K, Iwamura Y, et al. Case of congenital lobar emphysema in an 18-month-old boy and review of earlier cases. Pediatr Int 2003;45:587–589.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Chao MC, Karamzdeh AM, Ahuja G. Congenital lobar emphysema: an otolaryngologic perspective. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolarnygol 2005;69:549–554.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Powers JE, Counselman FL. Congenital lobar emphysema: tube thoracostomy not the treatment. Pediatr Emerg Care 2005;21:760–762.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Khosa JK, Leong SL, Borzi PA. Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation of the lung: indications and timing for surgery. Pediatr Surg Int 2004;20:505–508.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ueda K, Gruppo R, Unger F, Martin L, Bove K. Rhabdomyosarcoma of lung arising in congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation. Cancer 1977;40:383–388.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Granata C, Gambini C, Balducci T, et al. Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma arising in congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation in a child: a case report and review on malignancies originating in congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation. Pediatr Pulmonol 1998;25:62–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ozcan C, Celik A, Ural Z, Veral A, Kandiloglu G, Balik E. Primary pulmonary rhabdomyosarcoma arising within cystic adenomatoid malformation: a case report and review of the literature. J Pediatr Surg 2001;36:1062–1065.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Pai S, Eng HL, Lee SY, Hsiao CC, Huang WT, Huang SC. Rhabdomyosarcoma arising within congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2005;45:841–845.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Singh S, Bhende MS, Kinnane JM. Delayed presentations of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Pediatr Emerg Care 2001;17:269–271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Elhalaby EA, Abo Sikeena MH. Delayed presentation of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Pediatr Surg Int 2002;18:480–485.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Smith NP, Jesudason EC, Featherstone NC, Corbett HJ, Losty PD. Recent advances in congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Arch Dis Child 2005;90:426–428.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Gosche JR, Islam S, Boulanger SC. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia: searching for answers. Am J Surg 2005;190:324–332.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    John PR, Beasley SW, Mayne V. Pulmonary sequestration and related congenital disorders. A clinico-radiological review of 41 cases. Pediatr Radiol 1989;20:4–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Horak E, Bodner J, Gassner I, et al. Congenital cystic lung disease: diagnostic and therapeutic considerations. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2003;42:251–261.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Corbett HJ, Humphrey GM. Pulmonary sequestration. Paediatr Respir Rev 2004;5:59–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Woodring JH, Howard TA, Kanga JF. Congenital pulmonary veno-lobar syndrome revisited. Radiographics 1994;14:349–369.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Holt PD, Berdon WE, Marans Z, Griffiths S, Hsu D. Scimitar vein draining to the left atrium and a historical review of the scimitar syndrome. Pediatr Radiol 2004;34:409–413.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Rokade ML, Rananavare RV, Shetty DS, Saifi S. Scimitar syndrome. Indian J Pediatr 2005;72:245–247.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Sehgal A, Loughran-Fowlds A. Scimitar syndrome. Indian J Pediatr 2005;72:249–251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Dupuis C, Charaf LA, Breviere GM, Abou P, Remy-Jardin M, Helmius G. The "adult" form of the scimitar syndrome. Am J Cardiol 1992;70:502–507.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Dupuis C, Charaf LA, Breviere GM, Abou P. "Infantile" form of the scimitar syndrome with pulmonary hypertension. Am J Cardiol 1993;71:1326–1330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Gao YA, Burrows PE, Benson LN, Rabinovitch M, Freedom RM. Sci-mitar syndrome in infancy. J Am Coll Cardiol 1993;22:873–882.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Najm HK, Williams WG, Coles JG, Rebeyka IM, Freedom RM. Scimitar syndrome: twenty years’ experience and results of repair. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1996;112:1161–1169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Torres AR, Dietl CA. Surgical management of the scimitar syndrome: an age-dependent spectrum. Cardiovasc Surg 1993;1:432–438.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Schramel FM, Westermann CJ, Knaepen PJ, van den Bosch JM. The scimitar syndrome: clinical spectrum and surgical treatment. Eur Respir J 1995;8:196–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Brown JW, Ruzmetov M, Minnich DJ, et al. Surgical management of scimitar syndrome: an alternative approach. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2003;125:238–245.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hoffman MA, Superina R, Wesson DE. Unilateral pulmonary agenesis with esophageal atresia and distal tracheoesophageal fistula: report of two cases. J Pediatr Surg 1989;24:1084–1085.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kitagawa H, Nakada K, Fujioka T, et al. Unilateral pulmonary agenesis with tracheoesophageal fistula: a case report. J Pediatr Surg 1995;30:1523–1525.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Nowotny T, Ahrens BC, Bittigau K, et al. Right-sided pulmonary aplasia: longitudinal lung function studies in two cases and comparison to results from term healthy neonates. Pediatr Pulmonol 1998;26:138–144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Thomas RJ, Lathif HC, Sen S, Zachariah N, Chacko J. Varied presentations of unilateral lung hypoplasia and agenesis: a report of four cases. Pediatr Surg Int 1998;14:94–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Bentsianov BL, Goldstein NA, Giuste R, Har-El G. Unilateral pulmonary agenesis presenting as an airway lesion. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2000;126:1386–1389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Ootaki Y, Yamaguchi M, Yoshimura N, Oka S. Pulmonary agenesis with congenital heart disease. Pediatr Cardiol 2004;25:145–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Abrams ME, Ackerman VL, Engle WA. Primary unilateral pulmonary hypoplasia: Neonate through early childhood—case report, radiographic diagnosis, and review of the literature. J Perinatol 2004;24:667–670.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Rasch DK, Grover FL, Schnapf BM, Clarke E, Pollard TG. Right pneumonectomy syndrome in infancy treated with an expandable prosthesis. Ann Thorac Surg 1990;50:127–129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Morrow SE, Glynn L, Ashcraft KW. Ping-pong ball plombage for right postpneumonectomy syndrome in children. J Pediatr Surg 1998;33:1048–1051.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Podevin G, Larroquet M, Camby C, Audry G, Plattner V, Heloury Y. Postpneumonectomy syndrome in children: advantages and long-term follow-up of expandable prosthesis. J Pediatr Surg 2001;36:1425–1427.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Dobremez E, Fayon M, Vergnes P. Right pulmonary agenesis associated with remaining bronchus stenosis, an equivalent of postpneumonectomy syndrome. Treatment by insertion of tissue expanders in the thoracic cavity. Pediatr Surg Int 2005;21:121–122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Finer NN, Moriartey RR, Boyd J, Phillips HJ, Stewart AR, Ulan O. Postextubation atelectasis: a retrospective review and a prospective controlled study. J Pediatr 1979;94:110–113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Rivera R, Tibballs J. Complications of endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation in infants and children. Crit Care Med 1992;20:193–199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Boothroyd AE, Murthy BV, Darbyshire A, Petros AJ. Endotracheal suctioning causes right upper lobe collapse in intubated children. Acta Paediatr 1996;85:1422–1425.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Thomas K, Habibi P, Britto J, Owens CM. Distribution and pathophysiology of acute lobar collapse in the pediatric intensive care unit. Crit Care Med 1999;27:1594–1597.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Duggan M, Kavanagh BP. Pulmonary atelectasis: a pathogenic perioperative entity. Anesthesiology 2005;102:838–854.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Massard G, Wihlm JM. Postoperative atelectasis. Chest Surg Clin North Am 1998;8:503–528.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Peroni DG, Boner AL. Atelectasis: mechanisms, diagnosis, and management. Paediatr Respir Rev 2000;1:274–278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Hogg JC, Williams J, Richardson JB, Macklem PT, Thurlbeck WM. Age as a factor in the distribution of lower-airway conductance and in the pathologic anatomy of obstructive lung disease. N Engl J Med 1970;282:1283–1287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Mansell A, Bryan C, Levison H. Airway closure in children. J Appl Physiol 1972;33:711–714.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Berry FA, Yemen TA. Pediatric airway in health and disease. Pediatr Clin North Am 1994;41:153–180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Stocks J. Respiratory physiology during early life. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis 1999;54:358–364.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Menkes H, Traystman R, Terry P. Collateral ventilation. Fed Proc 1979;38:22–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Hazinski TA. Atelectasis. In: Chernick V, Boat TF, eds. Kendig’s Disorders of the Respiratory Tract in Children, 6th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1998:634–641.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Krause MF, Hoehn T. Chest physiotherapy in mechanically ventilated children: a review. Crit Care Med 2000;28:1648–1651.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Krastins I, Corey ML, McLeod A, Edmonds J, Levison H, Moes F. An evaluation of incentive spirometry in the management of pulmonary complications after cardiac surgery in a pediatric population. Crit Care Med 1982;10:525–528.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Bellet PS, Kalinyak KA, Shukla R, Gelfand MJ, Rucknagel DL. Incentive spirometry to prevent acute pulmonary complications in sickle cell diseases. N Engl J Med 1995;333:699–703.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Reardon CC, Christiansen D, Barnett ED, Cabral HJ. Intrapulmonary percussive ventilation vs incentive spirometry for children with neuromuscular disease. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2005;159:526–531.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Hsu LL, Batts BK, Rau JL. Positive expiratory pressure device acceptance by hospitalized children with sickle cell disease is comparable to incentive spirometry. Respir Care 2005;50:624–627.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Chatwin M, Ross E, Hart N, Nickol AH, Polkey MI, Simonds AK. Cough augmentation with mechanical insufflation/exsufflation in patients with neuromuscular weakness. Eur Respir J 2003;21:502–508.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Miske LJ, Hickey EM, Kolb SM, Weiner DJ, Panitch HB. Use of the mechanical in-exsufflator in pediatric patients with neuromuscular disease and impaired cough. Chest 2004;125:1406–1412.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Friedman O, Chidekel A, Lawless ST, Cook SP. Postoperative bilevel positive airway pressure ventilation after tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy in children—a preliminary report. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 1999;51:177–180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Jaarsma AS, Knoester H, van Rooyen F, Bos AP. Biphasic positive airway pressure ventilation (PeV+) in children. Crit Care 2001;5:174–177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Padman R, Henry M. The use of bilevel positive airway pressure for the treatment of acute chest syndrome of sickle cell disease. Del Med J 2004;76:199–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Tokuda Y, Matsumoto M, Sugita T, Nishizawa J. Nasal mask bilevel positive airway pressure ventilation for diaphragmatic paralysis after pediatric open-heart surgery. Pediatr Cardiol 2004;25:552–553.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Shah PL, Scott SF, Hodson ME. Lobar atelectasis in cystic fibrosis and treatment with recombinant human DNase I. Respir Med 1994;88:313–315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Gershan WM, Rusakow LS, Chetty A, Splaingard ML. Resolution of chronic atelectasis in a child with asthma after aerosolized recombinant human DNase. Pediatr Pulmonol 1994;18:268–269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Touleimat BA, Conoscenti CS, Fine JM. Recombinant human DNase in management of lobar atelectasis due to retained secretions. Thorax 1995;50:1319–1323.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Voelker KG, Chetty KG, Mahutte CK. Resolution of recurrent atelectasis in spinal cord injury patients with administration of recombinant human DNase. Intensive Care Med 1996;22:582–584.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Boeuf B, Prouix F, Morneau S, Marton D, Lacroix J. Safety of endotracheal rh DNase (Pulmozyme) for treatment of pulmonary atelectasis in mechanically ventilated children. Pediatr Pulmonol 1998;26:147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Durward A, Forte V, Shemie SD. Resolution of mucus plugging and atelectasis after intratracheal rhDNase therapy in a mechanically ventilated child with refractory status asthmaticus. Crit Care Med 2000;28:560–562.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    El Hassan NO, Chess PR, Huysman MW, Merkus PJ, de Jongste JC. Rescue use of DNase in critical lung atelectasis and mucus retention in premature neonates. Pediatrics 2001;108:468–470.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Merkus PJ, de Hoog M, van Gent R, de Jongste JC. DNase treatment for atelectasis in infants with severe respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. Eur Respir J 2001;18:734–737.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Kupeli S, Teksam O, Dogru D, Yurdakok M. Use of recombinant human DNase in a premature infant with recurrent atelectasis. Pediatr Int 2003;45:584–586.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Riethmueller J, Borth-Bruhns T, Kumpf M, et al. Recombinant human deoxyribonuclease shortens ventilation time in young, mechanically ventilated children. Pediatr Pulmonol 2006;41:61–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Barbato A, Novello A Jr, Tormena F, Carra S, Malocco F. Use of fiberoptic bronchoscopy in asthmatic children with lung collapse. Pediatr Med Chir 1995;17:253–255.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Wood RE. The emerging role of flexible bronchoscopy in pediatrics. Clin Chest Med 2001;22:311–317.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Scolieri P, Adappa ND, Coticchia JM. Value of rigid bronchoscopy in the management of critically ill children with acute lung collapse. Pediatr Emerg Care 2004;20:384–386.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Bar-Zohar D, Sivan Y. The yield of flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy in pediatric intensive care patients. Chest 2004;126:1353–1359.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Demling RH, LaLonde C, Ikegami K. Pulmonary edema: pathophysiology, methods of treatment, and clinical importance in acute respiratory failure. New Horiz 1993;1:371–380.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    O’Brodovich H, Mellins RB. Pulmonary edema. In: Chernick V, Boat TF, eds. Kendig’s Disorders of the Respiratory Tract in Children, 6th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1998:653–675.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Deshpande JK, Wetzel RC, Rogers MC. Unusual causes of myocardial ischemia, pulmonary edema, and cyanosis. In: Rogers MC, ed. Textbook of Pediatric Intensive Care, 3rd ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1996:432–442.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Rosenberg AL. Fluid management in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Respir Care Clin North Am 2003;9:481–493.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    O’Brodovich H. Pulmonary edema in infants and children. Curr Opin Pediatr 2005;17:381–384.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Staub NC, Nagano H, Pearce ML. Pulmonary edema in dogs, especially the sequence of fluid accumulation in the lungs. J Appl Physiol 1967;22:227–240.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Verghese GM, Ware LB, Matthay BA, Matthay MA. Alveolar epithelial fluid transport and the resolution of clinically severe hydrostatic pulmonary edema. J Appl Physiol 1999;87:1301–1312.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Ware LB, Matthay MA. Alveolar fluid clearance is impaired in the majority of patients with acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001;163:1376–1383.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Flori HR, Glidden DV, Rutherford GW, Matthay MA. Pediatric acute lung injury: prospective evaluation of risk factors associated with mortality. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2005;171:995–1001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Berthiaume Y, Folkesson HG, Matthay MA. Lung edema clearance: 20 years of progress: invited review: alveolar fluid clearance in the injured lung. J Appl Physiol 2002;93:2207–2213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Mehta D, Bhattacharya J, Matthay MA, Malik AB. Integrated control of lung fluid balance. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2004;287:L1081–L1090.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Morina P, Herrera M, Venegas J, Mora D, Rodriguez M, Pino E. Effects of nebulized salbutamol on respiratory mechanics in adult respiratory distress syndrome. Intensive Care Med 1997;23:58–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Atabai K, Ware LB, Snider ME, et al. Aerosolized beta(2)-adrenergic agonists achieve therapeutic levels in the pulmonary edema fluid of ventilated patients with acute respiratory failure. Intensive Care Med 2002;28:705–711.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    McAuley DF, Frank JA, Fang X, Matthay MA. Clinically relevant concentrations of beta2-adrenergic agonists stimulate maximal cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent airspace fluid clearance and decrease pulmonary edema in experimental acid-induced lung injury. Crit Care Med 2004;32:1470–1476.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Perkins GD, McAuley DF, Thickett DR, Gao F. The beta-agonist lung injury trial (BALT): a randomized placebo controlled trial. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2006;173:281–287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Martin GS, Moss M, Wheeler AP, Mealer M, Morris JA, Bernard GR. A randomized, controlled trial of furosemide with or without albumin in hypoproteinemic patients with acute lung injury. Crit Care Med 2005;33:1681–1687.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Mocelin HT, Fischer GB. Epidemiology, presentation, and treatment of pleural effusion. Paediatr Respir Rev 2002;3:292–297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Boyer DM. Evaluation and management of a child with a pleural effusion. Pediatr Emerg Care 2005;21:63–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Hawkins JA, Scaife ES, Hillman ND, Feola GP. Current treatment of pediatric empyema. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2004;16:196–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Gates RL, Hogan M, Weinstein S, Arca MJ. Drainage, fibrinolytics, or surgery: a comparison of treatment options in pediatric empyema. J Pediatr Surg 2004;39:1638–1642.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Jaffe A, Balfour-Lynn IM. Management of empyema in children. Pediatr Pulmonol 2005;40:148–156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Coote N, Kay E. Surgical versus non-surgical management of pleural empyema. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005;4:CD001956.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Chan EH, Russell JL, Williams WG, Van Arsdell GS, Coles JG, McCrindle BW. Postoperative chylothorax after cardiothoracic surgery in children. Ann Thorac Surg 2005;80:1864–1870.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Campbell RM, Benson LN, Williams WW, Adatia I. Chylopericardium after cardiac operations in children. Ann Thorac Surg 2001;72:193–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Le Coultre C, Oberhans I, Mossaz A, Bugmann P, Faidutti B, Belli DC. Postoperative chylothorax in children: differences between vascular and traumatic origin. J Pediatr Surg 1991;26:519–523.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Pratap U, Slavik Z, Ofoe VD, Onuzo O, Franklin RC. Octreotide to treat postoperative chylothorax after cardiac operations in children. Ann Thorac Surg 2001;72:1740–1742.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Rosti L, Bini RM, Chessa M, Butera G, Drago M, Carminati M. The effectiveness of octreotide in the treatment of post-operative chylothorax. Eur J Pediatr 2002;161:149–150.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Mohseni-Bod H, Macrae D, Slavik Z. Somatostatin analog (octreotide) in management of neonatal postoperative chylothorax: is it safe? Pediatr Crit Care Med 2004;5:356–357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Beghetti M, La Scala G, Belli D, Bugmann P, Kalangos A, Le Coultre C. Etiology and management of pediatric chylothorax. J Pediatr 2000;136:653–658.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Mohan H, Paes ML, Haynes S. Use of intravenous immunoglobulins as an adjunct in the conservative management of chylothorax. Paediatr Anaesth 1999;9:89–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Marts BC, Naunheim KS, Fiore AC, Pennington DG. Conservative versus surgical management of chylothorax. Am J Surg 1992;164:532–535.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Salim MA, DiSessa TG, Arheart KL, Alpert BS. Contribution of superior vena caval flow to total cardiac output in children: a Doppler echocardiographic study. Circulation 1995;92:1860–1865.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Damore DT, Dayan PS. Medical causes of pneumomediastinum in children. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2001;40:87–91.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Newcomb AE, Clarke CP. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum: a benign curiosity or a significant problem? Chest 2005;128:3298–3302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Nounla J, Trobs R, Bennek J, Lotz I. Idiopathic spontaneous pneumomediastinum: an uncommon emergency in children. J Pediatr Surg 2004;39:E23–E24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Cooper A. Thoracic injuries. Semin Pediatr Surg 1995;4:109–115.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Inci I, Ozcelik C, Nizam O, Eren N, Ozgen G. Penetrating chest injuries in children: a review of 94 cases. J Pediatr Surg 1996;31:673–676.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Cotton BA, Nance ML. Penetrating trauma in children. Semin Pediatr Surg 2004;13:87–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Turlapati KM, Spear RM, Peterson BM. Mediastinal tube placement in children with pneumomediastinum: hemodynamic changes and description of technique. Crit Care Med 1996;24:1257–1260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    von Hippel A. Chest Tubes and Chest Bottles. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas; 1970:1–96.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Brandt ML, Luks FI, Lacroix J, Guay J, Collin PP, Dilorenzo M. The paediatric chest tube. Clin Intensive Care 1994;5:123–129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Roberts JS, Bratton SL, Brogan TV. Efficacy and complications of percutaneous pigtail catheters for thoracostomy in pediatric patients. Chest 1998;114:1116–1121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Jardine OS. Reexpansion pulmonary edema. Am J Dis Child 1991;145:1092–1094.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Dubin JS. Reexpansion pulmonary edema. J Emerg Med 2000;19:377–378.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Sherman SC. Reexpansion pulmonary edema: a case report and review of the current literature. J Emerg Med 2003;2423–2427.Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Baumann MH, Strange C, Heffner JE, et al. Management of spontaneous pneumothorax—an American College of Chest Physicians Delphi Consensus Statement. Chest 2001;119:590–602.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Margaret A. Chase
    • 1
  • Derek S. Wheeler
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Critical Care MedicineCincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical CenterCincinnatiUSA
  2. 2.Division of Critical Care Medicine Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical CenterUniversity of Cincinnati College of MedicineCincinnatiUSA

Personalised recommendations