Advertisement

Nutrition in Combat Sports

Chapter

Learning Objectives

  • To understand the influence of “weight making” for competition on the everyday eating practices of combat athletes

  • To appreciate long-term solutions for achieving ideal levels of body fat and lean body mass for health and performance

  • To appreciate strategies for achieving goals for fuel, protein, vitamins and minerals in the everyday diet

  • To appreciate the range of nutritional issues underpinning preparation for competition in combat sports, and recovery after sessions of training and competition

  • To understand the role of supplements and sports foods in the overall nutrition plan for a combat athlete

1.1 Introduction

The need to make weight in many combat sports dominates the nutritional interests of its athletes and coaches. However, well-chosen eating patterns offer a number of advantages to assist the combat athlete enhance his or her training and competition performance. Supporting the fuel and nutrient needs of training will allow the athlete to train hard,...

Keywords

Total Energy Intake Creatine Supplementation Fluid Deficit Competition Performance Combat Sport 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    O’Connor H, Sullivan T, Caterson I. 2006, Weight loss and the athlete. Burke L, Deakin V (eds) Clinical sports nutrition, 3rd ed. McGraw-Hill, Sydney, Australia: 135–174Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Otis CL, Drinkwater B, Johnson M, Loucks A, Wilmore J. 1997; American College of Sports Medicine position stand. The female athlete triad. Med Sci Sports Exerc 29: i–ixPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Steen SN, Brownell KD. 1990; Patterns of weight loss and regain in wrestlers: has the tradition changed? Med Sci Sports Exerc 22: 762–768PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rouveix M, Bouget M, Pannafieux C, et al. Eating attitudes, body esteem, perfectionism and anxiety of judo athletes and nonathletes. Int J Sports Med 2006 Oct 6; Epub ahead of print Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Loucks AB. 2004; Energy balance and body composition in sports and exercise. J Sports Sci 22: 1–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Loucks AB, Thuma JR. 2003; Luteinizing hormone pulsatility is disrupted at a threshold of energy availability in regularly menstruating women. J Clin End Metab 88: 297–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Roemmich JN, Sinning WE. 1997; Weight loss and wrestling training: effects on growth-related hormones. J Appl Physiol 82: 1760–1764PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Strauss RH, Lanese RR, Malarkey WB. 1985; Weight loss in amateur wrestlers and its effect on serum testosterone levels. JAMA 254: 3337–3338PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Beals KA. 2004Disordered eating among athletes: a comprehensive guide for health professionals. Human Kinetics, Champaign, IL:Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tipton KD, Wolfe RR. 2004; Protein and amino acids for athletes. J Sports Sci 22: 65–79PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rasmussen BB, Tipton KD, Miller SL, et al. 2000; An oral essential amino acid-carbohydrate supplement enhances muscle protein anabolism after resistance exercise. J Appl Physiol 88: 386–392PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tipton KD, Rasmussen BB, Miller SL, et al. 2001; Timing of amino acid-carbohydrate ingestion alters anabolic response of muscle to resistance exercise. Am J Physiol 281: E197–E206Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Borsheim E, Tipton KD, Wolf SE, et al. 2002; Essential amino acids and muscle protein recovery from resistance exercise. Am J Physiol 283: E648–E657Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Borsheim E, Cree MG, Tipton KD, et al. 2004; Effect of carbohydrate intake on net muscle protein synthesis during recovery from resistance exercise. J Appl Physiol 96: 674–678PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Burke LM, Kiens B, Ivy JL. 2004; Carbohydrates and fat for training and recovery. J Sports Sci 22: 15–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Achten J, Halson SL, Moseley L, et al. 2004; Higher dietary carbohydrate content during intensified running training results in better maintenance of performance and mood state. J Appl Physiol 96: 1331–1340PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Slater G, Rice AJ, Tanner R, et al. 2006; Acute weight loss followed by an aggressive nutritional recovery strategy has little impact on on-water rowing performance. Br J Sports Med 40: 55–59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Slater GJ, Rice AJ, Tanner R, et al. 2006; Impact of two different body mass management strategies on repeat rowing performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 38: 138–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gleeson M, Nieman DC, Pedersen BK. 2004; Exercise, nutrition and immune function. J Sports Sci 22: 115–112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Burke LM, Collier GR, Hargreaves M. 1993; Muscle glycogen storage after prolonged exercise: the effect of the glycemic index of carbohydrate feedings. J Appl Physiol 75: 1019–1023PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Zawadzki KM, Yaspelkis BB, Ivy JL. 1992; Carbohydrate-protein complex increases the rate of muscle glycogen storage after exercise. J Appl Physiol 72: 1854–1859PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ivy JL. 2004; Regulation of muscle glycogen repletion, muscle protein synthesis and repair following exercise. J Sports Sci Med 3: 131–138Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ivy JL, Katz AL, Cutler CL, et al. 1988; Muscle glycogen synthesis after exercise: effect of time of carbohydrate ingestion. J Appl Physiol 64: 1480–1485PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Parkin JAM, Carey MF, Martin IK. 1997; Muscle glycogen storage following prolonged exercise: effect of timing of ingestion of high glycemic index food. Med Sci Sports Exerc 29: 220–224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hubbard RW, Szlyk PC, Armstrong LE.1990, Influence of thirst and fluid palatability on fluid ingestion during exercise. Gisolfi CV, Lamb DR (eds) Perspectives in exercise science and sports medicine. Benchmark Press, Carmel, IN: 39–95Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Nose H, Mack GW, Shi XR, et al. 1988; Role of osmolality and plasma volume during rehydration in humans. J Appl Physiol 61: 325–331Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Shirreffs SM, Taylor AJ, Leiper JB, et al. 1996; Post-exercise rehydration in man: effects of volume consumed and drink sodium content. Med Sci Sports Exerc 28: 1260–1271PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Maughan RJ, Leiper JB. 1995; Sodium intake and post-exercise rehydration in man. Eur J Appl Physiol 71: 311–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Shirreffs SM, Maughan RJ. 1997; Restoration of fluid balance after exercise-induced dehydration: effects of alcohol consumption. J Appl Physiol 83: 1152–1158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gonzalez-Alonso J, Heaps CL, Coyle EF. 1992; Rehydration after exercise with common beverages and water. Int J Sports Med 13: 399–406PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Armstrong LE. 2002; Caffeine, body fluid-electrolyte balance, and exercise performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 12 (2):189–206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Burke LM, Maughan RJ. 2000, pp.Alcohol in sport. Maughan RJ (ed). Nutrition in sport. Blackwell Science, Oxford: 405–414Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Deakin V. 2006, Iron depletion in athletes. Burke L, Deakin V (eds) Clinical sports nutrition, 3rd ed. McGraw-Hill, Sydney: 263–312Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Burke LM, Cort M, Cox GR, et al. 2006, Supplements and sports foods. Burke L, Deakin V (eds) Clinical sports nutrition, 3rd ed. McGraw-Hill, Sydney: 485–579Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kocak S, Karli U. 2003; Effects of high dose oral creatine supplementation on anaerobic capacity of elite wrestlers. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 43: 488–492PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Oopik V, Paasuke M, Timpmann S, et al. 1998; Effect of creatine supplementation during rapid body mass reduction on metabolism and isokinetic muscle performance capacity. Eur J Appl Physiol 78: 83–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Artioli GG, Gualano B, Coelho DF, Benatti FB, Gailey AW, Lancha AH. 2007; Does sodium-bicarbonate ingestion improve simulated judo performance? Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 17: 206–217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Geyer H, Parr MK, Reinhart U, Schrader Y, Mareck U, Schanzer W. 2004; Analysis of non-hormonal nutritional supplements for anabolic-androgenic steroids – results of an international study. Int J Sports Med 25: 124–129PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Maughan RJ. 2005; Contamination of dietary supplements and positive drug tests in sport. J Sports Sci 23: 883–889PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Otis CL, Drinkwater B, Johnson M. 1997; American College of Sports Medicine position stand. The female athlete triad. Med Sci Sports Exerc 29 (5):i–ixPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Loucks AB, Nattiv A. 2005; Essay: the female athlete triad. Lancet 366: S49–S50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ihle R, Loucks AB. 2004; Dose-response relationships between energy availability and bone turnover in young exercising women. J Bone Min Res 19: 1231–1240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Talbott SM, Shapses SA. 1998; Fasting and energy intake influence bone turnover in lightweight male rowers. Int J Sport Nutr 8: 377–387PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Prouteau S, Pelle A, Collomp K, et al. 2006; Bone density in elite judoists and effects of weight cycling on bone metabolic balance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 38: 694–700PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Beals KA, Manore MM. 2002; Disorders of the female athlete triad among collegiate athletes. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 12: 281–293PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kerr D, Khan K, Bennell K. 2006, Bone, exercise, nutrition and menstrual disturbances. Burke L, Deakin V (eds) Clinical sports nutrition, 3rd ed. McGraw-Hill, Sydney, Australia: 237–263Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Sports NutritionAustralian Institute of Sport, Leverrier CresAustralia

Personalised recommendations