Hand Surgery


2.1 Classification Systems of Congenital Hand Deformity

  • Morphology based

  • Embryology based

  • Genetic based (gene localization)

2.2 Classification of Congenital Limb Malformations

Swanson A. A classification for congenital limb malformation. J Hand Surg 1976; 1:8

Accepted by the American Society for Surgery of the Hand (ASSH) and the International Federation of Societies for Surgery of the Hand (IFSSH).

This is the most commonly used system

2.2.1 Overview

  1. 1.

    Failure of formation of parts

  2. 2.

    Failure of differentiation of parts

  3. 3.


  4. 4.


  5. 5.


  6. 6.

    Congenital constriction ring syndromes

  7. 7.

    Generalized skeletal abnormalities

2.2.2 Sub-classifications for Each Group

Failure of Formation of Parts Sub-classifications

(A) Transverse

(B) Longitudinal

Radial longitudinal deficiency (RLD), central deficiency, ulna longitudinal deficiency

Intercalated (Phocomelia)


Necrotizing Fasciitis Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Middle Phalanx Extensor Retinaculum Swan Neck Deformity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Consultant Plastic and Hand SurgeonPulvertaft Hand CentreDerbyUK

Personalised recommendations