Automatic Speech Recognition on Mobile Devices and over Communication Networks

Part of the series Advances in Pattern Recognition pp 187-210

Error Concealment

  • Reinhold Haeb-UmbachAffiliated withDepartment of Communications Engineering, University of Paderborn
  • , Valentin IonAffiliated withDepartment of Communications Engineering, University of Paderborn

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In distributed and network speech recognition the actual recognition task is not carried out on the user’s terminal but rather on a remote server in the network. While there are good reasons for doing so, a disadvantage of this client-server architecture is clearly that the communication medium may introduce errors, which then impairs speech recognition accuracy. Even sophisticated channel coding cannot completely prevent the occurrence of residual bit errors in the case of temporarily adverse channel conditions, and in packet-oriented transmission packets of data may arrive too late for the given real-time constraints and have to be declared lost. The goal of error concealment is to reduce the detrimental effect that such errors may induce on the recipient of the transmitted speech signal by exploiting residual redundancy in the bit stream at the source coder output. In classical speech transmission a human is the recipient, and erroneous data are reconstructed so as to reduce the subjectively annoying effect of corrupted bits or lost packets. Here, however, a statistical classifier is at the receiving end, which can benefit from knowledge about the quality of the reconstruction. In this book chapter we show how the classical Bayesian decision rule needs to be modified to account for uncertain features, and illustrate how the required feature posterior density can be estimated in the case of distributed speech recognition. Some other techniques for error concealment can be related to this approach. Experimental results are given for both a small and a medium vocabulary recognition task and both for a channel exhibiting bit errors and a packet erasure channel.