Sustainability: Motivation and Pathways for Implementation

  • Krishna B. Misra


Sustainability is a characteristic of a process or state that can be maintained at a certain level indefinitely. Sustainability focuses on providing the best outcomes for both human and natural environments now, and indefinitely into the future. In recent years, academic interest and public discussion has led to the use of the word sustainability in reference to how long human ecological systems can be expected to be usefully productive. This chapter first examines the threats and then provides how the environmental threats can be assessed and mitigated.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    Feynmann R. There’s plenty of room at the bottom miniaturization. Gilbert Reinhold (ed.). Reinhold, New York, 1961: 282–296.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Hartwick John M. Intergenerational equity and the investment of rents from exhaustible resources. American Economic Review; 1977, Dec.:67:972–974.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Rau JG, Wooten DC. Environmental impact assessment analysis handbook. Mc Graw-Hill, New York, 1980.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Westman WE. Ecology, impact assessment and environmental planning. Wiley, New York, 1985.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Brundtland GH (ed.). Our common future: The World Commission on Environment and Development. Oxford University Press, 1987.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Tisdell C. Sustainable development: Differing perspectives of ecologists and economists, and relevance to LDCs. World Development; 1988:16(3): 373–384.CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    Daly H, Cobb J. For the common good: Redirecting the economy toward community, the environment, and a sustainable future. Beacon Press, Boston, 1989.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Greenberg HR, Cramer JJ (eds.). Risk assessment and risk management for the chemical process industry. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1991.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    Keyes RW. Limits and Challenges in Electronics. Contemporary Physics; 1991: 32(6): 403–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    Drexler KE. Nanosystems: Molecular machinery, manufacturing, and computation. Wiley, New York, 1992.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    Geis MW, Angus JC. Diamond Film semiconductors. Scientific American; 1992: Oct.:84.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Merkle RC. Self replicating systems and molecular manufacturing. Journal of the British Interplanetary Society; 1992: 45: 407–413.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    Merkle RC. Reversible electronic logic using switches. Nanotechnology; 1993: 4: 21–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    Drexler KE. Molecular manufacturing: A future technology for cleaner production. In: Clean production: Environmental and economic perspectives. Misra KB (ed.). Springer, Berlin, 1996.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    Odum HT. Environmental Accounting: Emergy and environmental decision making. Wiley, New York, 1996.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    Daly H. Beyond Growth: The economics of sustainable development. Beacon Press, Boston, 1996.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    Brown MT, Ulgiati S. Emergy-based indices and ratios to evaluate sustainability: Monitoring economies and technology toward environmentally sound innovation. Ecological Engineering; 1997: 9: 51–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    Esty DC, Porter ME. Industrial ecology and competitiveness: Strategic implications for the firm. Journal of Industrial Ecology; Winter 1998: 2(1): 35–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    Ulgiati S, Brown MT. Emergy accounting of human-dominated, large scale ecosystems. In Jorgensen and Kay (eds.). Thermodynamics and Ecology. Elsevier, New York, 1999.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    Brown MT, Ulgiati S. Emergy evaluation of natural capital and biosphere services. Ambio; 1999: 28(6): 486–493.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    Unruh G. Understanding carbon lock-in. Energy Policy; 2000: 28(12): 817–830.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    Unruh G. Escaping carbon lock-in. Energy Policy; 2002: 30(4): 317–325.CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    Yi Heui-seok, Hau Jorge L, Ukidwe Nandan U. Bakshi Bhavik R. Hierarchical Thermodynamic Metrics for Evaluating the Environmental Sustainability of Industrial Processes. Environmental Progress; 2004:23(4): 65–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    Shields DJ, Solar SV, Martin WE. The role of values and objectives in communicating indicators of sustainability. Ecological Indicators; 2002: 2(1–2):149–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    Robèrt, K.H. The natural step story: Seeding a quiet revolution. New Society Publishers, Gabriola Island, BC, Canada, 2002.Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    Raskin P, Banuri T, Gallopin G, Gutman P, Hammond A, Kates R, Swart R. Great transition: The promise and lure of of the times ahead. Tellus Institute, Boston, 2002.Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    Meadows DH. Limits to growth: The 30-year update. Chelsea Green Publishing Company, White River Junction, VT, 2004.Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    Hargroves Karl, Smith M. (eds.). The natural advantage of nations: Business opportunities, innovations and governance in 21st century. Earthscan/ James and James, London, 2005.Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    Feng Xu. Applications of oxidoreductases: Recent progress, Industrial Biotechnology; 2005: 1: 38–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. [30]
    Jain Ravi. Sustainability: metrics, specific indicators and preference index. Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy; 2005: 7: 71–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. [31]
    Zhao S, Li Z, Li W. A modified method of ecological footprint calculation and its application. Ecological Modelling; 2005: 185(1): 65–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. [32]
    Richardson BJ and Wood S. (eds.) Environmental law for sustainability: A reader, Hart Publishing, Oxford, 2006.Google Scholar
  33. [33]
    Marks N, Simms A, Thompson S, Abdallah S. The (Un)happy planet index. New Economics Foundation, London, 2006.Google Scholar
  34. [34]
    Kriegman O. Dawn of the cosmopolitan: The hope of a global citizens movement. Tellus Institute, Boston, 2006.Google Scholar
  35. [35]
    Hezri A, Dovers SR. Sustainability indicators, policy and governance: Issues for ecological economics. Ecological Economics; 2006: 60(1):86–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. [36]
    Ness B, Urbel-Piirsalu E, Anderberg S, Olsson L. Categorizing tools for sustainability assessment. Ecological Economics; 2007: 60(3): 498–508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Krishna B. Misra
    • 1
  1. 1.RAMS ConsultantsJaipurIndia

Personalised recommendations