Silver Electromigration Resistance

Part of the Engineering Materials and Processes book series (EMP)


Electromigration has been identified as a primary failure mode of interconnect lines used in semiconductor-integrated circuits. It is a high-current density induced mass transport phenomenon manifesting itself as voids, hillocks, or open circuits, due to a momentum exchange between conduction electrons and host metal atoms. The electromigration failure of Al(Cu) interconnects has been extensively investigated because of the dominant use of Al(Cu) as conductors in microelectronics devices for decades. Recently, the electromigration study of Cu has been conducted considerably as well, since the trend to replace Al(Cu) with Cu is becoming apparent for ultra large scale integration (ULSI) applications. Ag, as the most conductive metal, has also drawn attention as an interconnect material for some potential applications in ULSI [1],[2]. Ag has some advantage over Cu in terms of the conductivity.


Test Line Encapsulation Process Partial Depletion Auger Electron Spectroscopy Spectrum Ultra Large Scale Integration 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    T. L. Alford, D. Adams, T. Laursen, B. Manfred Ullrich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3251(1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    Y. L. Zou, T.L. Alford, Y. X. Zeng, A. Amali, T. Laursen, B. M. Ullrich, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 3321(1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    J. Li, G. Vizkelethy, P. Revesz, J. W. Mayer, K. N. Tu, J. Appl. Phys. 69, 1020(1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    Y. Zeng, L. Chen, Y. L. Zou, P. A. Nyugen, J. D. Hansen, T. L. Alford. Materials Letters 45, 157(2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    H.M. Breitling, R. E. Hummel, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 33, 845(1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    R. E. Hummel, H. J. Geier, Thin Solid Films 25, 335(1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2008

Personalised recommendations