The Endocrine System

  • Elizabeth S. Gray

Until recently our knowledge of the fetal endocrine system in the human and its normal development has been limited. We have had even less understanding of how the classical endocrine system with its blood-borne hormones, interacted with the paracrine system and its growth factors. In the last 10 years animal experimentation and epidemiological human studies have led to a dramatic increase in our knowledge and have revealed that the fetal endocrine system is not only pivotal to the fetus but casts exceptionally long shadows into adult life.

It appears that the maturing fetal endocrine system progressively develops feedback and regulatory mechanisms similar to those of the adult. However, the fetal endocrine system also has to incorporate an additional endocrine organ in the placenta, the steroidogenic zone in the adrenal cortex (fetal zone), and a contribution from the central nervous system, which in the fetus is probably capable both of the production of certain tropic hormones and of being a target organ for certain steroid hormones produced by the gonads, adrenal gland, and placenta.


Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Congenital Hypothyroidism Endocrine Pancreas Diabetic Mother Hyperinsulinemic Hypoglycemia 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allen C, Reardon W (2005) Assisted reproduction technology and defects of genomic imprinting. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 112:1589–1594.Google Scholar
  2. Artal R (1980) Fetal adrenal medulla. Clin Obstet Gynaecol 23:825–836.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ashton IK, Aynsley-Green A (1978) Somatomedin in an infant with Beckwith' syndrome. Early Hum Dev 1:357–366.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aynsley-Green A (1982) Hypoglycemia in infants and children. Clin Endocrinol Metab 11:159–194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barker DJ, Bagby SP (2005) Developmental antecedents of cardiovascular disease:a historical perspective. J Am Soc Nephrol 16:2537–2544.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Becerra JE, Khoury MJ, Cordero JF, Erickson JD (1990) Diabetes mellitus during pregnancy and the risks for specifi c birth defects:a population based case-control study. Pediatrics 85:1–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Becker MJ, Becker AE (1976) Fat distribution in the adrenal cortex as an indication of the mode of intra-uterine death. Hum Pathol 7:495–504.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bloodworth JMB (ed) (1982) Endocrine Pathology. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, p. 625.Google Scholar
  9. Bocian-Sobkowska J, Wozniak W, Malendowicz LK (1997) Morphometric studies on the development of the human thyroid gland II. The late fetal life. Histol Histopathol 12L:79–84.Google Scholar
  10. Brown RW, Chapman KE, Edwards CR, et al. (1993) Human placental 11 beta hydroxysteroid dehydroge-nase:evidence for and partial purifi cation of a distinct NAD-dependent isoform. Endocrinology 132:2614–2621.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Buchanan TA, Kitzmiller JL (1994) Metabolic interactions of diabetes and pregnancy. Annu Rev Med 45:245–260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Buster JE (1980) Fetal adrenal cortex. Clin Obstet Gynecol 23:803–824.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cagle PT, Hough AJ, Pysher J, et al. (1986) Comparison of adrenal cortical tumours in children and adults. Cancer 57:2235–2236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Casson IF, Clarke CA, Howard CV, et al. (1997) Outcomes of pregnancy in insulin dependent diabetic women:results of a five year population cohort study. Br Med J 315:275–278.Google Scholar
  15. Catchpoole D, Lamm WWK, Valler D, et al. (1997) Epigenetic modifi cation and uniparental inheritance of H19 in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. J Med Genet 34:353–359.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cohen MM (2005) Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome:historical, clinicopathological, and etiopathogenic perspectives. Pediatr Dev Pathol 8:287–304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Coulter CL (2004) Functional biology of the primate fetal adrenal gland:advances in technique provide new insight. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 31:475–484.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Coulter CL, Goldsmith PC, Messiano S, et al. (1996a) Functional maturation of the primate fetal adrenal in vivo:1. Role of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), IGF-1 receptor, and IGF binding proteins, in growth. Endocrinology 137:4487–4498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Coulter CL, Read LC, Carr BR, Tarantal AF, Barry S, Styne DM (1996b) A role for epidermal growth factor in the morphological and functional maturation of the adrenal gland in the rhesus monkey in vivo. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 81:1254–1260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cunningham MD, Desai NS, Thompson SA, Greene JM (1978) Amniotic fl uid phosphatidyl glycerol in diabetic pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 131:719–724.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Damm P, Molsted-Pedersen L (1989) Signifi cant decrease in congenital malformations in newborn infants of an unselected population of diabetic women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 161:1163–1167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Danziger Y, Pertzelan A, Mimouni M (1987) Transient congenital hypothyroidism after topical iodine in pregnancy. Arch Dis Child 62:295–296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. De Zehger F, Vanhole C, Van den Berghe G, Devlieger H, Eggermont E, Veldhuis JD (1994) Properties of thyroid stimulating hormone and cortisol secretion by the human newborn on the day of birth. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 79:576–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. DeSa DJ (1978) Stress response and its relationship to cystic (pseudofollicular) change in the defi nitive cortex of the adrenal gland in stillborn infants. Arch Dis Child 53:769–776.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Efstratiadis A (1998) Genetics of mouse growth. Int J Dev Biol 42:955–976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Facchinetti F, Lanzani A, Genazzani AR (1989) Fetal intermediate lobe is stimulated by parturition. Am J Obstet Gynecol 161:1267–1270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Faggiano M, Minozzi M, Lombardi G, Carella C, Criscuolo T (1975) Two cases of the chromatin positive variety of ovarian dysgenesis (XO/XX mosa-icism) associated with HGH defi ciency and marginal impairment of other hypothalamic pituitary functions. Clin Genet 8:324–329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Fasano M, Greco MA (1996) Proliferative activity of adrenal glands with adrenocortical cytomegaly measured by MIB-1 labelling index. Pediatr Pathol Lab Med 16:765–776.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fisher DA (1997) Fetal thyroid function:diagnosis and management of fetal thyroid disorders. Clin Obstet Gynecol 40:16–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fisher DA, Odell WD (1969) Acute release of thyro tropin in the newborn. J Clin Invest 48:1670–1677.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fleischman AR (1980) Fetal parathyroid gland and calcium homeostasis. Clin Obstet Gynecol 23:791–802.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Forsberg H, Borg LA, Cagliero E, Eriksson UJ (1996) Altered levels of scavenging enzymes in embryos subjected to a diabetic environment. Free Radic Res 24:451–459.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fowden A, Forhead AJ (2004) Endocrine mechanisms of intrauterine programming. Reproduction 127:515–526.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fowden AL (2003) The insulin-like growth factors and feto-placental growth. Placenta 24:803–812.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fox H (1997) Pathology of the Placenta, 2nd ed. WB Saunders, London, pp. 216–223.Google Scholar
  36. Fujieda K, Farman C, Reyes FI, Winter JSD (1981) The control of steroidogenesis by the human fetal adrenal cells in tissue culture, III. The effects of various hormonal peptides. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 53:690–693.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Fujieda K, Farman C, Reyes FI, Winter JSD (1982) The control of steroidogenesis by the human fetal adrenal cells in tissue culture, IV. The effects of exposure to placental steroids. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 54:89–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Gaillard DA, Lallemand AV, Moirot HH, Visseaux-Coletto BJ, Paradis PH (1990) Fetal adrenal development during the second trimester of gestation. Pediatr Pathol 10:335–350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gitau R, Cameron A, Fisk NM, Glover V (1998) Fetal exposure to maternal cortisol. Lancet 352:707–708.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Goodyer GC, Guyda H, Giroud CJP (1979) Development of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis in the human fetus. In: Tolis G, Labrie G, Martin JB, Naftolin F (eds) Clinical Neuroendocrinology:A Pathophy-siological Approach. Raven, New York, pp. 199–214.Google Scholar
  41. Goossens A, Gepts W, Saudubray JM, et al. (1989) Diffuse and focal nesidioblastosis. A clinicopatho-logical study of 24 patients with persistent neonatal hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. Am J Surg Pathol 13:766–775.Google Scholar
  42. Gosden R, Traser J, Lucifero D, Faddy M (2003) Rare congenital disorder, imprinted genes and assisted reproductive technology. Lancet 361:1975–1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gould VE, Dardi LE, Gould NS (1983) Nesidio-dysplasia and nesidioblastosis of infancy:structural and functional correlations with the syndrome of hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. Pediatr Pathol 1:7–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gray ES, Abramovich DR (1980) Morphologic features of the anencephalic adrenal gland in early pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 137:491–495.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Greco MA, Finegold MJ (1973) Familial giant cell hepatitis. Report of two cases and a review of the literature. Arch Pathol 95:240–244.Google Scholar
  46. Guo W, Burris TP, McCabe ER (1995) Expression of DAX-1, the gene responsible for X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita and hypogonado-tropic hypogonadism in the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal–gonadal axis. Biochem Mol Med 56:8–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gutgesell HP, Spear M, Rosenberg HS (1980) Characterisation of the cardiomyopathy of infants of diabetic mothers. Circulation 61:441–450.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Han VKM (1996) The ontogeny of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factors and sex steroids:molecular aspects. Horm Res 45:61–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Harach HR, Vujanic GM (1993) Intrathyroid parathyroid. Pediatr Pathol 13:71–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hardy DB, Yang K (2002) The expression of 11 beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 is induced during trophoblast differentiation:effects of hypoxia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:3696–3701.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hayek A, Driscol SG, Warshaw JB (1973) Endocrine studies in anencephaly. J Clin Invest 52:1636–1641.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Heckel S, Favre R, Schlienger JL, Soskin P (1997) Diagnosis and successful treatment of fetal goitrous hyperthyroidism caused by maternal Graves disease. A case report. Fetal Diagn Ther 12:54–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Hill DE (1980) Fetal endocrine pancreas. Clin Obstet Gynecol 23:837–847.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hobel CJ (1980) Fetal thyroid. Clin Obstet Gynecol 23:779–790.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Houghton DC, Walker DW, Young IR, McMillen IC (1993) Melatonin and the light-dark cycle separately infl uence daily behaviour and hormonal rhythms in the pregnant ewe and sheep fetus. Endocrinology 133:90–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hubbell JP, Muirhead DM, Drorbaugh JE (1965) The new-born infant of the diabetic mother. Med Clin North Am 49:1035–1052.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Iancu T, Boyanower Y, Laurian N (1974) Congenital goiter due to maternal ingestion of iodide. Am J Dis Child 128:528–530.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Jack PMB, Milner RDG (1975) Effect of decapitation and ACTH on somatic development of the rabbit fetus. Biol Neonate 26:195–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Jaffe R, Hashida Y, Yunis EJ (1980) Pancreatic pathology in hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy. Lab Invest 42:356–365.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Janssen PA, Rothman I, Schwartz SM (1996) Congenital malformations in newborns of women with established and gestational diabetes in Washington State, 1984–91. Paediatr Perin Epidemiol 10:52–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Jones A, Godfrey KM, Wood P, Osmond C, Goulden P, Phillips DL (2006) Fetal growth and the adrenocorti-cal response to psychological stress. J Clin Endocri-nol Metab 91:1868–1871.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kallen B (1989) A prospective study of some aetiologi-cal factors in limb-reduction defects in Sweden. J Epidemiol Community Health 43:86–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Karabulet AK, Layfield R, Pratten MK (2001) Growth promoting effects of human placental lactogen during early organogenesis:a link to insulin-like growth factors. J Anat 198:651–662.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Karalis K, Goodwin G, Majzoub JA (1996) Cortisol blockade of progesterone:a possible molecular mechanism involved in the initiation of human labour. Nature Med 2:556–560.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kerenyi N (1961) Congenital adrenal hypoplasia. Report of a case of extreme adrenal hypoplasia and neurohypophyseal aplasia. Arch Pathol 71:336–343.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Kjaer I, Keeling JW, Reintoft I, et al. (1998a) Pituitary gland and sella turcica in human trisomy 18 fetuses. Am J Med Genet 76:87–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kjaer I, Keeling JW, Reintoft I, Nolting D, Fischer Hansen B. (1998b) Pituitary gland and sella turcica in human trisomy 21 fetuses related to axial skeletal development. Am J Med Genet 80:494–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kloppel G (1984) Islet histopathology in diabetes mellitus. In: Kloppel G, Heitz PU (eds) Pancreatic Pathology. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, pp. 173–174.Google Scholar
  69. Laidlaw GF (1938) Nesidioblastoma, islet tumor of pancreas. Am J Pathol 14:125–134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Langdown ML, Sugden ML (2001) Enhanced GLUT1 and GLUT3 expression in dexamethasone-induced fetal growth retardation. Mol Cell Endocrinol 185:109–117.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Larroche JC (1977) Developmental Pathology of the Neonate. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, p. 220.Google Scholar
  72. Liu HM, Potter EL (1962) Development of the human pancreas. Arch Pathol 74:439–452.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. McGuire V, Rauh MJ, Mueller BA, Hickock D (1996) The risk of diabetes in a subsequent pregnancy associated with prior history of gestational diabetes or macrosomic infant. Paediatr Perinatol Epidemiol 10:64–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Miller E, Hare JW, Cloherty JP, et al. (1981) Elevated maternal hemoglobin AIC in early pregnancy and major congenital anomalies in the infants of diabetic mothers. N Engl J Med 304:1331–1334.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Milley JR, Rosenberg AA, Jones MD, Simmons MA (1981) Circulating effects of hyperinsulinemia in the near term ovine fetus. Pediatr Res 15:672(abstr).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Mills SE, Allen MS (1986) Occult papillary carcinoma of thyroid gland. Hum Pathol 17:1179–1181.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Milner RDG (1979) Amino acids and beta cell growth. In: Merkatz IR, Adam PAJ (eds) The Diabetic Pregnancy. Grune and Stratton, New York, pp. 145–153.Google Scholar
  78. Milner RDG, Hill DJ (1987) Interaction between endocrine and paracrine paptides in prenatal growth control. Eur J Pediatr 148:113–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Milner RDG, Barson AJ, Ashworth MA (1971) Human fetal pancreatic insulin secretion in response to ionic and other stimuli. J Endocrinol 51:323–332.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Moley KH, Chi MM-Y, Knudson CM, Korsmeyer SJ, Mueckler MM (1998) Hyperglycemia induces apop-tosis in pre-implantation embryos through cell death effector pathways. Nature Med 4:1421–1424.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Moncrieff MW, Hill DS, Archer J, Arthur LJH (1972) Congenital absence of the pituitary gland and adrenal hypoplasia. Arch Dis Child 47:136–137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Moreno LA, Turck D, Gottraud F, Fabre M, Manouvrier-Hanu S, Farriaux JP (1989) Familial hyperinsulinism with nesidioblastosis of the pancreas:further evidence for autosomal recessive inheritance. Am J Med Genet 34:584–586.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Morriss FH (1984) Infants of diabetic mothers. Fetal and neonatal pathophysiology. Perspect Pediatr Pathol 8:223–234.Google Scholar
  84. Murphy VE, Clifton VL (2003) Alterations in human placental 11 beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and type 2 with gestational age and labour. Placenta 24:739–744.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Murphy VE, Smith R, Giles WB, et al. (2006) Endocrine regulation of human fetal growth:the role of the mother, placenta and fetus. Endocrine Rev 27:141–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Naeye RL, Blanc WA (1971) Organ and body growth in anencephaly. A quantitative, morphological study. Arch Pathol 91:140–147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Neave C (1984) Congenital malformations in offspring of diabetics. Perspect Pediatr Pathol 8:213–223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Nelson L, Turkel S, Shulman I, Gabbe S (1977) Pancreatic islet fi brosis in young infants of diabetic mothers. Lancet 11:362–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Nishiyama S, Tomoeda S Inoue F, Ohta T, Matsuda I (1990) Self-limited familial hyperparathyroidism associated with hypercalcemia and renal tubular aci-dosis in three siblings. Pediatrics 86:421–427.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Obenshain SS, Adam Paj, King KC, Teramo K, Raivo N (1970) Human fetal insulin response to sustained maternal hyperglycemia. N Engl J Med 283:566–570.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Parker CR, Atkinson MW, Owen J, Andrews WW (1996) Dynamics of fetal adrenal, cholesterol and apolipo-protein B responses to antenatal betamethasone therapy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 174:562–565.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Peden VH (1960) True idiopathic hypoparathyroidism as a sex linked recessive trait. Am J Hum Genet 12:323–327.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Pemberton HN, Franklyn JA, Kilby MD (2005) Thyroid hormones and fetal brain development. Minerva Ginecol 57:367–378.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Pepe GJ, Albrecht ED (1990) Regulation of the fetal adrenal cortex. Endocr Rev 11:151–176.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Perelman AH, Johnson RL, Clemens RD, Finberg HJ, Clewell WH, Trujillo L (1990) Intrauterine diagnosis and treatment of fetal goitrous hypothyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 71:618–621.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Petraglia F, Calza L, Garuh GC, Giardino L, De Ramundo BM, Angioni S (1990) New aspects of pla-cental endocrinology. J Endocrinol Invest 13:353–371.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Phillips DW, Barker DJP, Hales CN, et al. (1994) Thinness at birth and insulin resistance in later life. Diabetologia 37:150–154.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Potau N, Riudor E, Ballabriga A (1981) Insulin receptors in the human placenta in relation to fetal weight and gestational age. Pediatr Res 15:798–803.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Potter EL, Craig JM (1976) Pathology of the Fetus and Infant, 3rd ed. Year Book Medical Publishers, Chicago, p. 326.Google Scholar
  100. Preece MA, Kearney PJ, Marshall WC (1977) Growth hormone defi ciency in congenital rubella. Lancet 11:842–844.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Reece EA, Hobbins JC (1986) Diabetic embryopathy:pathogenesis, prenatal diagnosis and prevention. Obstet Gynecol Surv 41:325–335.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Reinecke-Lüthge A, Koschoreck F, Klöppel G (2000) The molecular basis of persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy and its pathologic substrates (review). Virchows Arch 436:1–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Rizzo TA, Metzger BE, Dooley SL, Cho NH (1997) Early nutrition and child neurobehavioral development:insights from the study of children of diabetic mothers. Child Dev 68:26–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Rosenn B, Miodovnik M, Dignan PStJ, Siddiqi TA, Khoury J, Mimouni F (1990) Minor congenital malformations in infants of insulin-dependent diabetic women:association with poor glycemic control. Obstet Gynecol 76:745–749.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Sagreiya K, Emery JL (1970) Perinatal thyroid discharge. A histological study of 1225 infant thyroids. Arch Dis Child 45:746–754.Google Scholar
  106. Salazar H, Macaulay MA, Charles D, Pardi M (1969) The human hypophysis in anencephaly. Arch Pathol 87:201–211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Sampath-Kumar R, Matthews SG, Yang K (1998) 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 is the predominant isozyme in the guinea pig placenta:decreases in messenger ribonucleic acid and activity at term. Biol Reprod 59:1378–1384.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Sarkar S, Tsai SW, Nguyen TT, et al. (2001) Inhibition of 11 beta-hydroxy dehydrogenase type 2 by catecholamines via alpha-adrenergic signaling. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 281:1966–1974.Google Scholar
  109. Sclare G (1956) The histological structure of the thyroid in the newborn. Scott Med J 1:251–258.Google Scholar
  110. Silverman JL (1963) Eosinophil infi ltration in the pancreas of infants of diabetic mothers. Diabetes 12:528–537.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Simpson ER, Carr BR, Parker CR, Milewich L, Porter JC, Macdonald PC (1979) The role of serum lipoproteins in steroidogenesis by the human fetal cortex. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 49:146–148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Smith YF, Mullon DK, Hamosh M, Scolon JW, Hamosh P (1979) Serum prolactin and respiratory distress syndrome in the newborn. Pediatr Res 14:93–95.Google Scholar
  113. Somville T (1990) Diabetes and pregnancy. Z Geburtshilfe Perinatol 194:51–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Staffers DA, Zinkin NT, Stanojevic V, Clarke WL, Habener JF (1997) Pancreatic agenesis attributable to a single nucleotide deletion in the human IPF1 gene coding sequence. Nature Genet 15:106–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Stark Rl, Frantz AG (1983) ACTH-²-endorphin in pregnancy. Clin Perinatol 10:653–657.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Strauss JF, Martinez F, Kirikidou M (1996) Placental steroid hormone synthesis:unique features and unanswered questions. Biol Reprod 54:303–311.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Sun F-L, Dean WL, Kelsey G, Allen ND, Reik W (1997) Transactivation of Igf-2 in a mouse model of Beck-with–Wiedemann syndrome. Nature 389:809–815.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Thompson DM, Dansereau J, Creed M, Ridell L (1994) Tight glucose control results in normal perinatal outcome in 150 patients with gestational diabetes. Obstet Gynecol 83:362–366.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Van Assche FA, Gepts W, De Gasparo M (1969) The endocrine pancreas in anencephalics:a histological and biochemical study. Biol Neonate 14:374–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Van Hale HM, Turkel SB (1979) Neuroblastoma and adrenal morphologic features in anencephalic infants. Arch Pathol Lab Med 103:119–121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Warren S, LeCompte PM, Legg MA (1966) The Pathology of Diabetes Mellitus, 4th ed. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, pp. 406–433.Google Scholar
  122. Weksberg R, Shuman C, Smith AC (2005) Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 137:12–23.Google Scholar
  123. Wentzel P, Eriksson UJ (1996) Insulin treatment fails to abolish the teratogenic potential of serum from diabetic rats. Eur J Endocrinol 134:459–466.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. White P (1965) Pregnancy and diabetes:medical aspects. Med Clin North Am 49:1015–1024.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Yoon JW, Austin M, Onodera R, Notkins AL (1979) Virus induced diabetes mellitus. Isolation of a virus from a pancreas of a child with diabetic ketoacidosis. N Engl J Med 300:1173–1179.Google Scholar
  126. Young MC, Laurence KM, Hughes IA (1989) Relationship between fetal adrenal morphology and anterior pituitary function. Horm Res 32:130–135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elizabeth S. Gray
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PathologyNational Health Service—GrampianAberdeenUK

Personalised recommendations