The Urinary System

  • T. Yee Khong
  • Adrian K. Charles

In the perinatal period, congenital abnormalities of the kidneys and urinary tract are of major importance while specific acquired lesions and tumors are comparatively rare. Acquired problems associated with prematurity, such as acute tubular necrosis, cortical necrosis, and nephrocal-cinosis, are also quite common. The recognition that anomalies of the urogenital tract are often associated with other anomalies of the urogenital tract has led to the term CAKUT—congenital anomalies in the kidney and urinary tract (Nakai et al. 2003; Rodriguez 2004). Many congenital abnormalities are better appreciated by an understanding of normal renal development, and the pathophysiology of many of these anomalies are being identified at the molecular level (Nakanishi and Yoshikawa 2003). For more detailed information, the reader is advised to also consult recent embryology texts and reviews (Glassberg 2002; Levin and Schlussel 2003; Bouchard 2004). The increasingly sophisticated images obtained by the antenatal ultrasound screening program has increased the antenatal detection of renal abnormalities, allowing better management of these patients and showing the development and changing features of these diseases during gestation (Bhide et al. 2005). Tumors of the kidney in the neonate are covered in Chapter 15.


Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease Polycystic Kidney Disease Posterior Urethral Valve Renal Agenesis Renal Dysplasia 
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© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Yee Khong
    • 1
  • Adrian K. Charles
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of HistopathologyWomen's and Children's HospitalNorth AdelaideAustralia
  2. 2.Department of PathologyKing Edward and Princess Margaret HospitalsSubiacoAustralia

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