Understanding Information


In this chapter we will be looking in detail at the following topics: What is information?, Memory and addressing, Decimal and binary integers, Little endian and big endian formats, Hexadecimal numbers, Signed numbers, fractions and floating point numbers, Binary Coded Decimal (BCD), Characters and computer program codes, Records, files, file types and file signatures, The use of hexadecimal listings, Word processing and graphic file formats, Archive and other file formats.


Joint Photographic Expert Group Decimal Number ASCII Character File Signature Portable Network Graphic 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Atzberger, P. and Zolli, A. (1996), Portable Network Graphics, Trincoll Journal. URL:∼tj/tj10.31.96/articles/tech.html
  2. Avanstar Inc. (undated), Quick View Plus from Stellent Corporation, republished under licence by Avantstar,Inc.,Corporate Headquarters, 18986 Lake Drive East,Chanhassen,MN 55317, USA. URL:
  3. Blackstock, S. (undated) LZW and GIF Explained. URL:∼amer/ CISC651/lzw.and.gif.explained.html
  4. Born, G. (1997) The File Formats Handbook, International Thompson Publishing, London.Google Scholar
  5. Brown, C. L. T. (2004) Exchangeable Image file Format (ExIF), Technical White Paper, Tech-nology Pathways LLC. URL:
  6. Deutsch, P. (1996) RFC 1952, GZIPfile format specification version 4.3, Network Working Group.Google Scholar
  7. Free Software Foundation (2006) Why There Are No GIF files on GNU Web Pages.URL:
  8. Hamilton, E. (1992) JPEG File Interchange Format Version 1.02, C-Cube Microsystems, 1778 McCarthy Blvd, Milpitas, CA 95035, USA.Google Scholar
  9. ISO (undated) ISO DIS 10918-1.Google Scholar
  10. Kuhn, M. (2005) UTF-8 and Unicode FAQ. URL:∼mgk25/ unicode.html
  11. Liebenau,J.and Backhouse J. (1990) Understanding Information - An Introduction,Macmillan Press Ltd, Basingstoke and London, pp. 1-3.Google Scholar
  12. Messmer, H.-P. (2002) The Indispensable PC Hardware Book, 4th edn, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.Google Scholar
  13. Microsoft Corporation (2004) Compound File Binary File Format. Issued under licence to the Advanced Authoring Format (AAF) Association and currently available as Low-Level Container Specification v1.0.1 at aafcontainerspec-v1.0.1.pdf.
  14. Murray, J. D. and vanRyper, W. (1996) Encyclopedia of Graphics File Formats, O’Reilly & Associates, Sebastopol, CA.Google Scholar
  15. PKWARE Inc. (2006) APPNOTE.TXT - .ZIP File Format Specification, Version: 6.3.0, Revised: 29 September 2006. URL: TXT
  16. Williams, R. (1996) Data Powers of Ten. Although the original page has now expired, a similar version is available at URL: how-much-info/datapowers.html
  17. Ziv, J. and Lempel, A. (1977) A universal algorithm for sequential data compression, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 23(3), 337-343.zbMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2007

Personalised recommendations