Graph Builder: Constructing Non-visual Visualizations
This paper introduces a novel application called Graph Builder, which allows visually impaired people to interactively construct bar graphs using a force feedback device. We discuss the limitations of current technology to allow such interactive construction and explain why, in educational environments, such interactive construction is important. Evaluations of Graph Builder showed that users could construct graphs accurately. However results showed that a large number of ‘off-by-one’ errors occurred, where the bar was set either one unit too high or too low. Revisions to the mechanism to manipulate bars were made, and further non-speech audio feedback was added. A further evaluation showing that the proportion of ‘off-by-one’ errors had been reduced.
Keywordshaptics visual impairment non-speech audio graph construction
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Brown, D., Howat, R. D., Meikle, G., Mullan, E. C. K., Murray, R. & Nisbet, K. , New Mathematics in Action S3 2, Nelson Thornes.Google Scholar
- Brown, L. & Brewster, S. A. , Drawing by Ear: Interpreting Sonified Line Graphs, in E. Brazil & B. Shinn-Cunningham (eds.), Proceedings of ICAD 2003, ICAD, pp. 152–6.Google Scholar
- Challis, B. P. & Edwards, A. D. N. , Design Principles for Tactile Interaction, in S. Brewster & R. Murray-Smith (eds.), Haptic Human-Computer Interaction, Vol. 2058 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer, pp. 17–24.Google Scholar
- Clamp, S. , Mathematics, in H. Mason, S. McCall, C. Arter, M. McLinden & J. Stone (eds.), Visual Impairment: Access to Education for Children and Young People, David Fulton Publishers, pp.218–35.Google Scholar
- Dimigen, G., Scott, F., Thackeray, F., Pimm, M. & Roy, A. W. N. , Career Expectations of British Visually Impaired Students who are of School-leaving Age, Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness 87, 209–10.Google Scholar
- Franklin, K. M. & Roberts, J. C. , Pie Chart Sonification, in E. Banissi, K. Borner, C. Chen, G. Clapworthy, C. Maple, A. Lobben, C. Moore, J. Roberts, A. Ursyn & J. Zhang (eds.), Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Information Visualization (IV’03), IEEE Computer Society Press, pp.4–9.Google Scholar
- Mansur, D. L. , Graphs in Sound: A Numerical Data Analysis Method for the Blind, Master’s thesis, University of California.Google Scholar
- Pinker, S. , A Theory of Graph Comprehension, in R. Freedle (ed.), Artificial Intelligence and the Future of Testing, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp.73–126.Google Scholar
- van Scoy, F. L., Kawai, T., Darrah, M. & Rash, C. , Haptic Display of Mathematical Functions for Teaching Mathematics to Students with Vision Disabilities: Design and Proof of Concept, in S. Brewster & R. Murray-Smith (eds.), Haptic Human-Computer Interaction, Vol. 2058 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer, pp.31–40.Google Scholar
- Yu, W., Kangas, K. & Brewster, S. A. , Web-based Haptic Applications for Blind People to Create Virtual Graphs, in A. Jacobs (ed.), Proceedings of the 11th Haptic Symposium, IEEE Computer Society Press, pp.318–25.Google Scholar