Advertisement

Chemotherapy for Bladder Cancer

  • Matthew D. Galsky
  • Dean F. Bajorin

Abstract

Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder is the second most common genitourinary malignancy. Each year, over 73,000 new cases are reported in Europe and over 56,000 new cases in the United States. A substantial percentage of these patients develop metastases despite initial management for presumed localized disease, whereas others have metastases at the time of presentation. Once metastasis occurs, the median survival for patients with TCC is approximately 1 year. To improve this poor survival rate, intense efforts over the past two decades have focused on the development of active chemotherapeutic regimens for use in this disease, both in the perioperative setting and in the setting of advanced disease. Chemotherapy for advanced disease is discussed here first because of its impact on the management of early-stage disease.

Keywords

Bladder Cancer Clin Oncol Radical Cystectomy Transitional Cell Carcinoma Invasive Bladder Cancer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Herr H, Shipley W, Bajorin D. Cancer of the bladder. In: DeVita V Jr, Hellman S, Rosenberg S, eds. Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 6th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001:1396–1418.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Raghavan D, Shipley WU, Garnick MB, et al. Biology and management of bladder cancer. N Engl J Med 1990;322:1129–1138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sternberg CN, Yagoda A, Scher HI, et al. Preliminary results of M-VAC (methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin and cisplatin) for transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium. J Urol 1985;133:403–407.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sternberg CN, Yagoda A, Scher HI, et al. Methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin for advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium. Efficacy and patterns of response and relapse. Cancer 1989;64:2448–2458.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Loehrer PJ Sr, Einhorn LH, Elson PJ, et al. A randomized comparison of cisplatin alone or in combination with methotrexate, vinblastine, and doxorubicin in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma: a cooperative group study. J Clin Oncol 1992;10:1066–1073.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Logothetis CJ, Dexeus F, Sella A, et al. A prospective randomized trial comparing CISCA to MVAC chemotherapy in advanced metastatic urothelial tumors. J Clin Oncol 1990;8:1050–1055.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Saxman SB, Propert KJ, Einhorn LH, et al. Long-term follow-up of a phase III intergroup study of cisplatin alone or in combination with methotrexate, vinblastine, and doxorubicin in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma: a cooperative group study. J Clin Oncol 1997;15:2564–2569.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sternberg CN, de Mulder PH, Schornagel JH, et al. Randomized phase III trial of high-dose-intensity methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin (MVAC) chemotherapy and recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor versus classic MVAC in advanced urothelial tract tumors: European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Protocol no. 30924. J Clin Oncol 2001;19:2638–2646.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bajorin DF, Dodd PM, Mazumdar M, et al. Long-term survival in metastatic transitional-cell carcinoma and prognostic factors predicting outcome of therapy. J Clin Oncol 1999;17:3173–3181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bellmunt J, Albanell J, Paz-Ares L, et al. Pretreatment prognostic factors for survival in patients with advanced urothelial tumors treated in a phase I/II trial with paclitaxel, cisplatin, and gemcitabine. Cancer 2002;95:751–757.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    von der Maase H, Andersen L, Crino L, et al. Weekly gemcitabine and cisplatin combination therapy in patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium: a phase II clinical trial. Ann Oncol 1999;10:1461–1465.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kaufman D, Raghavan D, Carducci M, et al. Phase II trial of gemcitabine plus cisplatin in patients with metastatic urothelial cancer. J Clin Oncol 2000;18:1921–1927.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Moore MJ, Winquist EW, Murray N, et al. Gemcitabine plus cisplatin, an active regimen in advanced urothelial cancer: a phase II trial of the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group. J Clin Oncol 1999;17:2876–2881.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    von der Maase H, Hansen SW, Roberts JT, et al. Gemcitabine and cisplatin versus methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin in advanced or metastatic bladder cancer: results of a large, randomized, multinational, multicenter, phase III study. J Clin Oncol 2000;18:3068–3077.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dreicer R, Manola J, Roth BJ, et al. Phase II study of cisplatin and paclitaxel in advanced carcinoma of the urothelium: an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Study. J Clin Oncol 2000;18:1058–1061.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Garcia del Muro X, Marcuello E, Guma J, et al. Phase II multicentre study of docetaxel plus cisplatin in patients with advanced urothelial cancer. Br J Cancer 2002;86:326–330.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sengelov L, Kamby C, Lund B, et al. Docetaxel and cisplatin in metastatic urothelial cancer: a phase II study. J Clin Oncol 1998;16:3392–3397.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bamias A, Aravantinos G, Deliveliotis C, et al. Docetaxel and cisplatin with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) versus MVAC with G-CSF in advanced urothelial carcinoma: a multicenter, randomized, phase III study from the Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol 2004;22:1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bajorin DF, McCaffrey JA, Dodd PM, et al. Ifosfamide, paclitaxel, and cisplatin for patients with advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelial tract: final report of a phase II trial evaluating two dosing schedules. Cancer 2000;88:1671–1678.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bellmunt J, Guillem V, Paz-Ares L, et al. Phase I-II study of paclitaxel, cisplatin, and gemcitabine in advanced transitional-cell carcinoma of the urothelium. Spanish Oncology Genitourinary Group. J Clin Oncol 2000;18:3247–3255.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mottet-Auselo N, Bons-Rosset F, Costa P, et al. Carboplatin and urothelial tumors. Oncology 1993;50(suppl 2):28–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Vaughn DJ, Malkowicz SB, Zoltick B, et al. Paclitaxel plus carboplatin in advanced carcinoma of the urothelium: an active and tolerable outpatient regimen. J Clin Oncol 1998;16:255–260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Vaughn DJ, Manola J, Dreicer R, et al. Phase II study of paclitaxel plus carboplatin in patients with advanced carcinoma of the urothelium and renal dysfunction (E2896): a trial of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. Cancer 2002;95:1022–1027.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Redman BG, Smith DC, Flaherty L, et al. Phase II trial of paclitaxel and carboplatin in the treatment of advanced urothelial carcinoma. J Clin Oncol 1998;16:1844–1848.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Pycha A, Grbovic M, Posch B, et al. Paclitaxel and carboplatin in patients with metastatic transitional cell cancer of the urinary tract. Urology 1999;53:510–515.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zielinski CC, Schnack B, Grbovic M, et al. Paclitaxel and carboplatin in patients with metastatic urothelial cancer: results of a phase II trial. Br J Cancer 1998;78:370–374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Small EJ, Lew D, Redman BG, et al. Southwest Oncology Group Study of paclitaxel and carboplatin for advanced transitional-cell carcinoma: the importance of survival as a clinical trial end point. J Clin Oncol 2000;18:2537–2544.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Dreicer R, Manola J, Roth BJ, et al. ECOG 4897: Phase III trial of methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin (M-VAC) versus carboplatin and paclitaxel in patients with advanced carcinoma of the urothelium [abstract]. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 2003;22:384(abstract 1542).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Carles J, Nogue M. Gemcitabine/carboplatin in advanced urothelial cancer. Semin Oncol 2001;28:19–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bellmunt J, de Wit R, Albanell J, et al. A feasibility study of carboplatin with fixed dose of gemcitabine in “unfit” patients with advanced bladder cancer. Eur J Cancer 2001;37:2212–2215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Santoro A, Santoro M, Maiorino L, et al. Phase II trial of gemcitabine plus carboplatin for urothelial transitional cell carcinoma in advanced or metastatic stage. Ann Oncol 1998;9(suppl 2):647.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Carteni G, Dogliotti L, Crucitta A, et al. Phase II randomised trial of gemcitabine plus cisplatin (GP) and gemcitabine plus carboplatin (GC) in patients (pts) with advanced or metastatic transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium (TCCU) [abstract]. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 2003;22:384(abstract 1543).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Edelman MJ, Meyers FJ, Miller TR, et al. Phase I/II study of paclitaxel, carboplatin, and methotrexate in advanced transitional cell carcinoma: a well-tolerated regimen with activity independent of p53 mutation. Urology 2000;55:521–525.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hussain M, Vaishampayan U, Du W, et al. Combination paclitaxel, carboplatin, and gemcitabine is an active treatment for advanced urothelial cancer. J Clin Oncol 2001;19:2527–2533.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bellmunt J, Ribas A, Eres N, et al. Carboplatin-based versus cisplatinbased chemotherapy in the treatment of surgically incurable advanced bladder carcinoma. Cancer 1997;80:1966–1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Petrioli R, Frediani B, Manganelli A, et al. Comparison between a cisplatin-containing regimen and a carboplatin-containing regimen for recurrent or metastatic bladder cancer patients. A randomized phase II study. Cancer 1996;77:344–351.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sweeney CJ, Williams SD, Finch DE, et al. A Phase II study of paclitaxel and ifosfamide for patients with advanced refractory carcinoma of the urothelium. Cancer 1999;86:514–518.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Meluch AA, Greco FA, Burris HA 3rd, et al. Paclitaxel and gemcitabine chemotherapy for advanced transitional-cell carcinoma of the urothelial tract: a phase II trial of the Minnie pearl cancer research network. J Clin Oncol 2001;19:3018–3024.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sternberg CN, Calabro F, Pizzocaro G, et al. Chemotherapy with an every-2-week regimen of gemcitabine and paclitaxel in patients with transitional cell carcinoma who have received prior cisplatin-based therapy. Cancer 2001;92:2993–2998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Dreicer R, Manola J, Schneider DJ, et al. Phase II trial of gemcitabine and docetaxel in patients with advanced carcinoma of the urothelium: a trial of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. Cancer 2003;97:2743–2747.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Norton L, Simon R. The Norton-Simon hypothesis revisited. Cancer Treat Rep 1986;70:163–169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Dodd PM, McCaffrey JA, Hilton S, et al. Phase I evaluation of sequential doxorubicin gemcitabine then ifosfamide paclitaxel cisplatin for patients with unresectable or metastatic transitional-cell carcinoma of the urothelial tract. J Clin Oncol 2000;18:840–846.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Maluf F, Hilton S, Nanus D, et al. Sequential doxorubicin/gemcitabine (AG) and ifosfamide, paclitaxel, and cisplatin (ITP) chemotherapy (AG-ITP) in patients with metastatic or locally advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium [abstract]. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 2000;19:342a(abstract 1344).Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hussain M, Smith DC, Vaishampayan U, et al. Trastuzumab (T), paclitaxel (P), carboplatin (C) and gemcitabine (G) in patients with advanced urothelial cancer and overexpression of HER-2. (NCI study #198) [abstract]. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 2003;22:391(abstract 1569).Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Dodd PM, McCaffrey JA, Herr H, et al. Outcome of postchemotherapy surgery after treatment with methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin in patients with unresectable or metastatic transitional cell carcinoma. J Clin Oncol 1999;17:2546–2552.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Donat SM, Herr HW, Bajorin DF, et al. Methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin and cisplatin chemotherapy and cystectomy for unresectable bladder cancer. J Urol 1996;156:368–371.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Miller R, Freiha F, Reese J, et al. Surgical restaging of patients with advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium treated with cisplatin, methotrexate, and vinblastine: update of the Stanford University experience [abstract]. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 1992;10:167.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Splinter TA, Scher HI, Denis L, et al. The prognostic value of the pathological response to combination chemotherapy before cystectomy in patients with invasive bladder cancer. European Organization for Research on Treatment of Cancer—Genitourinary Group. J Urol 1992;147:606–608.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Bassi P, Pagano F, Pappagallo G, et al. Neo-adjuvant M-VAC of invasive bladder cancer: G.U.O.N.E. multicenter phase III trial (abstract 567). Eur Urol 1998;33:142.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Wallace DM, Raghavan D, Kelly KA, et al. Neo-adjuvant (preemptive) cisplatin therapy in invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Br J Urol 1991;67:608–615.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Martinez-Pineiro JA, Gonzalez Martin M, Arocena F, et al. Neoadjuvant cisplatin chemotherapy before radical cystectomy in invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder: a prospective randomized phase III study. J Urol 1995;153:964–973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Shipley WU, Winter KA, Kaufman DS, et al. Phase III trial of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with invasive bladder cancer treated with selective bladder preservation by combined radiation therapy and chemotherapy: initial results of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 89-03. J Clin Oncol 1998;16:3576–3583.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Cortesi E. Neoadjuvant treatment for locally a dvanced bladder cancer: a prospective randomized clinical trial [abstract]. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 1995;14:237 (abstract 623).Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hall R. Updated results of a randomised controlled trial of neoadjuvant cisplatin (C), methotrexate (M) and vinblastine (V) chemotherapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer [abstract]. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 2002;21:178a (abstract 710).Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Grossman HB, Natale RB, Tangen CM, et al. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus cystectomy compared with cystectomy alone for locally advanced bladder cancer. N Engl J Med 2003;349:859–866.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Malmstrom PU, Rintala E, Wahlqvist R, et al. Five-year followup of a prospective trial of radical cystectomy and neoadjuvant chemotherapy: Nordic Cystectomy Trial I. The Nordic Cooperative Bladder Cancer Study Group. J Urol 1996;155:1903–1906.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Neoadjuvant cisplatin, methotrexate, and vinblastine chemotherapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer: a randomised controlled trial. International collaboration of trialists. Lancet 1999;354:533–540.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in invasive bladder cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet 2003;361:1927–1934.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Bono AV, Benvenuti C, Reali L, et al. Adjuvant chemotherapy in advanced bladder cancer. Italian Uro-Oncologic Cooperative Group. Prog Clin Biol Res 1989;303:533–540.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Stockle M, Meyenburg W, Wellek S, et al. Advanced bladder cancer (stages pT3b, pT4a, pN1 and pN2): improved survival after radical cystectomy and 3 adjuvant cycles of chemotherapy. Results of a controlled prospective study. J Urol 1992;148:302–306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Skinner DG, Daniels JR, Russell CA, et al. The role of adjuvant chemotherapy following cystectomy for invasive bladder cancer: a prospective comparative trial. J Urol 1991;145:459–464.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Studer UE, Bacchi M, Biedermann C, et al. Adjuvant cisplatin chemotherapy following cystectomy for bladder cancer: results of a prospective randomized trial. J Urol 1994;152:81–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Freiha F, Reese J, Torti FM. A randomized trial of radical cystectomy versus radical cystectomy plus cisplatin, vinblastine and methotrexate chemotherapy for muscle invasive bladder cancer. J Urol 1996;155:495–499.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Siefker-Radtke AO, Millikan RE, Tu SM, et al. Phase III trial of fluorouracil, interferon alpha-2b, and cisplatin versus methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin in metastatic or unresectable urothelial cancer. J Clin Oncol 2002;20:1361–1367.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Malmstrom PU, Rintala E, Wahlqvist R, et al. Neoadjuvant cisplatinmethotrexate chemotherapy of invasive bladder cancer: Nordic cystectomy trial 2: XIVth Congress of the European Association of Urology [abstract]. Eur Urol 1999;35(suppl 2):60(abstract 238).Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Curotto A, Martorana G, Venturini M, et al. Multicenter randomized study on the comparison between radical cystectomy alone and neoadjuvant alternate chemoradiotherapy before radical cystectomy: Assessment over 104 patients. In: Gluliani L, Puppo P, eds. Urology. Genova: Monduzzi, 1992:489–493.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Abol-Enein H, El-Mekresh M, El-Baz M, et al. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in treatment of invasive transitional bladder cancer: a controlled prospective randomized study [abstract]. Br J Urol 1997;80(suppl 2):49 (abstract 191).Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Millikan R, Dinney C, Swanson D, et al. Integrated therapy for locally advanced bladder cancer: final report of a randomized trial of cystectomy plus adjuvant M-VAC versus cystectomy with both preoperative and postoperative M-VAC. J Clin Oncol 2001;19:4005–4013.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matthew D. Galsky
    • 1
  • Dean F. Bajorin
    • 1
  1. 1.Genitourinary Medical Oncology Service Department of Medicine, Solid Tumour Oncology Memorial Hospital for Cancer and Allied DiseasesMemorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer CenterNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations