Treatment Options in Superficial (pTa/pT1/CIS) Bladder Cancer

  • Jeremy L. Ockrim
  • Paul D. Abel


Bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in men and the eighth most common cancer in women worldwide, and the incidence continues to rise. In the United Kingdom, 13,600 new cases per annum contribute 5% to the national cancer burden [1]. Over 100,000 diagnostic, check, and interventional cystoscopies each year are performed in surveillance protocols in attempting to monitor for disease progression. In the United States, there were approximately 57,500 new cases and 12,500 deaths in 2003, resulting in an annual expenditure ($2.2 billion/year) almost twice that for prostate cancer [2]. These figures reflect the lifelong commitment to surveillance and intervention for recurrent and progressive disease. The difficulties involved in this complex process were emphasized in McFarlane et al.’s [3] seminar in 1996, where considerable divergence of opinion was noted among clinicians presented with a variety of clinical scenarios. This chapter provides an overview of the current rationale behind the therapeutic options available for superficial bladder cancer treatment. In this way, it is hoped to empower clinicians with a broad sweep of the evidence on which therapy is based.


Bladder Cancer Transurethral Resection Urologic Cancer Intravesical Therapy Intravesical Chemotherapy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeremy L. Ockrim
    • 1
  • Paul D. Abel
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Urology Institute of UrologyUniversity College LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.Department of Surgery Faculty of Medicine Hammersmith Hospital CampusImperial College LondonLondonUK

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