HIV: Identification, Diagnosis, and Prevention

  • Gunter RiegEmail author
Part of the Current Clinical Practice book series (CCP)


Over the last 30 years, advances in the understanding and treatment of HIV infected ranks among the most remarkable in medical history. While the rate of new HIV infections in the United States remain at a high level, advanced treatment options make HIV infection a manageable disease.

Sexual transmission of HIV remains the main mode of acquiring HIV. Men who have sex with men is the most affected group, while minorities are disproportionally affected. The risk of transmission through sexual contact ranges from 4 to 170 per 10,000 sex acts. Condoms and other barrier methods are the most commonly used prevention tool; in addition, the FDA recently approved Truvada, a co-formulated tablet containing two antiretroviral agents, for pre-exposure prophylaxis.

Prevention and diagnosis are important interventions to curb the HIV epidemic. HIV testing is considered an important routine test for all persons age 13–64 with health-care contacts. During the HIV testing “window period,” suspicion for a newly acquired HIV infection is required given the nonspecific symptoms of acute HIV infection.


Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Anal Intercourse Acquire Immune Deficiency Syndrome Human Immunodeficiency Virus Test 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Kaiser Permanente Medical Group, Medicine DepartmentDavid Geffen School of Medicine at UCLAHarbor CityUSA
  2. 2.Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious DiseasesKaiser Permanente South Bay Medical CenterHarbor CityUSA

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