HIV: Identification, Diagnosis, and Prevention
Over the last 30 years, advances in the understanding and treatment of HIV infected ranks among the most remarkable in medical history. While the rate of new HIV infections in the United States remain at a high level, advanced treatment options make HIV infection a manageable disease.
Sexual transmission of HIV remains the main mode of acquiring HIV. Men who have sex with men is the most affected group, while minorities are disproportionally affected. The risk of transmission through sexual contact ranges from 4 to 170 per 10,000 sex acts. Condoms and other barrier methods are the most commonly used prevention tool; in addition, the FDA recently approved Truvada, a co-formulated tablet containing two antiretroviral agents, for pre-exposure prophylaxis.
Prevention and diagnosis are important interventions to curb the HIV epidemic. HIV testing is considered an important routine test for all persons age 13–64 with health-care contacts. During the HIV testing “window period,” suspicion for a newly acquired HIV infection is required given the nonspecific symptoms of acute HIV infection.
KeywordsHuman Immunodeficiency Virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Anal Intercourse Acquire Immune Deficiency Syndrome Human Immunodeficiency Virus Test
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