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Magnesium Metabolism in Menopause

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Nutrition and Diet in Menopause

Key Points

  • Magnesium is a major mineral which is regulated at the level of kidney, bone and intestine.

  • Parathormone (PTH), calcitonin, vitamin D, estrogen and cytokines are involved in regulation of magnesium.

  • Menopause is associated with various endocrine changes and also alterations in magnesium metabolism.

  • Oestrogen deficiency associated with menopause causes alteration in the metabolism of magnesium at the level of kidney, bone and intestine.

  • Oestrogen deficiency induces various molecular and genetic changes which affect the uptake, intracellular transport and basolateral extrusion of magnesium in kidney and intestine.

  • Oestrogen deficiency in menopause, also induces alteration in maturation, differentiation, activity, lifespan and cytokine secretion of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, leading to increased bone resorption and hence alteration in the metabolism of the bone mineral—magnesium.

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Abbreviations

PTH:

Parathormone

TRPM:

Transient receptor potential melastatin

TRPV:

Transient receptor potential vanilloid

PCT:

Proximal convoluted tubule

DCT:

Distal convoluted tubule

CD:

Collecting duct

ECF:

Extracellular fluid

ICF:

Intracellular fluid

CB:

Calbindin

VDR:

Vitamin D receptor

RXR:

Retinoid receptor

VDRE:

Vitamin D responsive element

RNA:

Ribonucleic acid

DNA:

Deoxyribonucleic acid

IGF:

Insulin like growth factor

ER:

Oestrogen receptor

KO:

Knockout

GH:

Growth hormone

IL:

Interleukin

MCSF:

Macrophage colony stimulating factor

TNF:

Tumour necrosis factor

IFN:

Interferon

ROS:

Reactive oxygen species

REA:

Repressor protein of oestrogen receptor activity

PDGF:

Platelet-derived growth factor

OPG:

Osteoprotegerin

RANK:

Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa beta

RANKL:

Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa beta ligand

RDA:

Recommended daily allowance

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Correspondence to S. S. Avinash M.B.B.S., M.D. .

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Avinash, S.S., Sreekantha, Goud, B.K.M. (2013). Magnesium Metabolism in Menopause. In: Hollins Martin, C., Watson, R., Preedy, V. (eds) Nutrition and Diet in Menopause. Nutrition and Health. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-62703-373-2_16

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-62703-373-2_16

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