Ureteral Calculi

  • Sri SivalingamEmail author
  • Stephen Y. Nakada
Part of the Current Clinical Urology book series (CCU)


The prevalence of urolithiasis has increased over the last few decades. Patients with ureteral calculi typically present with renal colic, and these stones create different diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in comparison to renal calculi. A variety of management options are currently available for the treatment of ureteral stones, including active monitoring, medical expulsive therapy, ureterolithotripsy, SWL, or laparoscopic stone removal. Several factors, including patient preference, stone burden and location, resource availability, and surgeon skill, all contribute to the chosen treatment approach. Ureteroscopy (URS) and SWL are the two most commonly utilized treatment modalities, and evolving technology has continued to improve outcomes, especially for URS; it is therefore important to consider outcomes from current literature when choosing the appropriate therapy. For example, stone size and location affect the rates of spontaneous passage and stone-free rates after surgery. URS prevailed as the most effective treatment overall for ureteral calculi in the 2007 AUA ureteral stones guideline, reflecting a change from the panel’s position in its previous report in 1997. Additionally, medical expulsive therapy has improved spontaneous passage rates and may decrease the need for surgery. This chapter presents a careful review of the current literature on ureteral calculi and the role of URS in the management thereof to provide an evidence-based approach to ureteroscopic management of ureteral stones.


Shock Wave Lithotripsy Ureteral Stone Ureteral Calculus Laser Lithotripsy Stone Burden 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of UrologyUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA

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