Advertisement

Ureteral and Ureteroenteric Strictures

  • Ojas ShahEmail author
  • Tracy Marien
Chapter
Part of the Current Clinical Urology book series (CCU)

Abstract

Ureteral stricture disease management has changed with the introduction of minimally invasive treatment options such as ureteroscopy, laparoscopy, and robotics over the last 10–20 years. The advantages of decreased morbidity, pain, and convalescence time with minimally invasive surgery tempered with good results in the appropriate clinical scenario have led to a shift in treating this disease process ureteroscopically depending on the etiology.

This chapter will focus on the ureteroscopic management (both retrograde and antegrade) of ureteral strictures, including ureteroenteric anastomotic and kidney transplant-related ureteral strictures. The techniques of surgery and the process of determining which patients are the right candidates for this treatment option will be discussed via an evidence-based approach. This will allow urologists to appropriately select candidates for ureteroscopy, provide them with the tools and technique for success, and allow counseling of patients regarding the risks, benefits, and alternatives taking into account success rates.

Keywords

Balloon Dilation Urinary Diversion Ureteral Stenting Nephrostomy Tube Ureteral Orifice 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Bush IM, Goldberg E, Javadpour N, Chakrobortty H, Morelli F. Ureteroscopy and renoscopy: a preliminary report. Chic Med Sch Q. 1970;30(1):46–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Goodman TM. Ureteroscopy with pediatric cystoscope in adults. Urology. 1977;9(4):394.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lyon ES, Kyker JS, Schoenberg HW. Transurethral ureteroscopy in women: a ready addition to the urological armamentarium. J Urol. 1978;119(1):35–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lyon ES, Banno JJ, Schoenberg HW. Transurethral ureteroscopy in men using juvenile cystoscopy equipment. J Urol. 1979;122(2):152–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Laven BA, O’Connor RC, Gerber GS, Steinberg GD. Long-term results of endoureterotomy and open surgical revision for the management of ureteroenteric strictures after urinary diversion. J Urol. 2003;170(4 Pt 1):1226–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    DiMarco DS, LeRoy AJ, Thieling S, Bergstralh EJ, Segura JW. Long-term results of treatment for ureteroenteric strictures. Urology. 2001;58(6):909–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Studer UE, Burkhard FC, Schumacher M, et al. Twenty years experience with an ileal orthotopic low pressure bladder substitute—lessons to be learned. J Urol. 2006;176(1):161–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Schmidt JD, Hawtrey CE, Flocks RH, Culp DA. Complications, results and problems of ileal conduit diversions. J Urol. 1973;109(2):210–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cheng M, Looney SW, Brown JA. Ureteroileal anastomotic strictures after a Bricker ileal conduit: 50 case assessment of the impact of conversion from a slit incision to a “shield shaped” ileotomy. Can J Urol. 2011;18(2):5644–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yang WJ, Cho KS, Rha KH, et al. Long-term effects of ileal conduit urinary diversion on upper urinary tract in bladder cancer. Urology. 2006;68(2):324–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hetet JF, Rigaud J, Karam G, et al. Complications of Bricker ileal conduit urinary diversion: analysis of a series of 246 patients. Prog Urol. 2005;15(1):23–9. discussion 29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pantuck AJ, Han KR, Perrotti M, Weiss RE, Cummings KB. Ureteroenteric anastomosis in continent urinary diversion: long-term results and complications of direct versus nonrefluxing techniques. J Urol. 2000;163(2):450–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ali-El-Dein B, Shaaban AA, Abu-Eideh RH, El-Azab M, Ashamallah A, Ghoneim MA. Surgical complications following radical cystectomy and orthotopic neobladders in women. J Urol. 2008;180(1):206–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Muraishi O, Yamashita T, Ishikawa S, Hara Y, Tokue A. Improvement of ureteroileal anastomosis in orthotopic ileal neobladder with modified le duc procedure: short submucosal tunnel technique. J Urol. 2001;165(3):798–801.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Arai Y, Taki Y, Kawase N, et al. Orthotopic ileal neobladder in male patients: functional outcomes of 66 cases. Int J Urol. 1999;6(8):388–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lugagne PM, Herve JM, Lebret T, Barre P, Mollier S, Botto H. Ureteroileal implantation in orthotopic neobladder with the Le Duc-Camey mucosal-through technique: risk of stenosis and long-term follow-up. J Urol. 1997;158(3 Pt 1):765–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    De Carli P, Micali S, O’Sullivan D, et al. Ureteral anastomosis in the orthotopic ileal neobladder: comparison of 2 techniques. J Urol. 1997;157(2):469–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Knap MM, Lundbeck F, Overgaard J. Early and late treatment-related morbidity following radical cystectomy. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2004;38(2):153–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kouba E, Sands M, Lentz A, Wallen E, Pruthi RS. A comparison of the bricker versus wallace ureteroileal anastomosis in patients undergoing urinary diversion for bladder cancer. J Urol. 2007;178(3):945–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Barbieri CE, Schwartz MJ, Boorjian SA, Lee MM, Scherr DS. Ureteroileal anastomosis with intraluminal visualization: technique and outcomes. Urology. 2010;76(6):1496–500.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hautmann RE, de Petriconi RC, Volkmer BG. 25 years of experience with 1,000 neobladders: long-term complications. J Urol. 2011;185(6):2207–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Evangelidis A, Lee EK, Karellas ME, Thrashert JB, Holzbeierlein JRM. Evaluation of ureterointestinal anastomosis: Wallace vs Bricker. J Urol. 2006; 175(5):1755–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ozdemir E, Ozturk U, Celen S, et al. Urinary complications of gynecologic surgery: iatrogenic urinary tract system injuries in obstetrics and gynecology operations. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2011;38(3): 217–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Goodno Jr JA, Powers TW, Harris VD. Ureteral injury in gynecologic surgery: a ten-year review in a community hospital. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1995;172(6):1817–20. discussion 1820–1812.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Vakili B, Chesson RR, Kyle BL, et al. The incidence of urinary tract injury during hysterectomy: a prospective analysis based on universal cystoscopy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005;192(5):1599–604.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    St Lezin MA, Stoller ML. Surgical ureteral injuries. Urology. 1991;38(6):497–506.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Selzman AA, Spirnak JP. Iatrogenic ureteral injuries: a 20-year experience in treating 165 injuries. J Urol. 1996;155(3):878–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Johnson DB, Pearle MS. Complications of ureteroscopy. Urol Clin North Am. 2004;31(1):157–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Harmon WJ, Sershon PD, Blute ML, Patterson DE, Segura JW. Ureteroscopy: current practice and long-term complications. J Urol. 1997;157(1):28–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Jeromin L, Sosnowski M. Ureteroscopy in the treatment of ureteral stones: over 10 years’ experience. Eur Urol. 1998;34(4):344–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Carter SS, Cox R, Wickham JE. Complications associated with ureteroscopy. Br J Urol. 1986;58(6): 625–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    O’Brien WM, Maxted WC, Pahira JJ. Ureteral stricture: experience with 31 cases. J Urol. 1988;140(4): 737–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Roberts WW, Cadeddu JA, Micali S, Kavoussi LR, Moore RG. Ureteral stricture formation after removal of impacted calculi. J Urol. 1998;159(3):723–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Liu JS, Hrebinko RL. The use of 2 ipsilateral ureteral stents for relief of ureteral obstruction from extrinsic compression. J Urol. 1998;159(1):179–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hamm M, Rathert P. Therapy of extrinsic ureteral obstruction by 2 parallel double-J ureteral stents. Urologe A. 1999;38(2):150–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Razdan S, Silberstein IK, Bagley DH. Ureteroscopic endoureterotomy. BJU Int. 2005;95 Suppl 2:94–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Wong LM, Cleeve LK, Milner AD, Pitman AG. Malignant ureteral obstruction: outcomes after intervention. Have things changed? J Urol. 2007;178(1): 178–83. discussion 183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hendlin K, Korman E, Monga M. New metallic ureteral stents: improved tensile strength and resistance to extrinsic compression. J Endourol. 2011;26(3): 271–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Docimo SG, Dewolf WC. High failure rate of indwelling ureteral stents in patients with extrinsic obstruction: experience at 2 institutions. J Urol. 1989;142(2 Pt 1):277–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Chung SY, Stein RJ, Landsittel D, et al. 15-year experience with the management of extrinsic ureteral obstruction with indwelling ureteral stents. J Urol. 2004;172(2):592–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Wolf Jr JS, Elashry OM, Clayman RV. Long-term results of endoureterotomy for benign ureteral and ureteroenteric strictures. J Urol. 1997;158(3 Pt 1):759–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Netto Junior NR, Ferreira U, Lemos GC, Claro JF. Endourological management of ureteral strictures. J Urol. 1990;144(3):631–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hong JH, Jeon SS, Lee KS. Result of endoscopic ureteroureterostomy with holmium:YAG laser for complete ureteral obstruction. J Endourol. 2005; 19(8):979–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Lopatkin NA, Martov AG, Gushchin BL. An endourologic approach to complete ureteropelvic junction and ureteral strictures. J Endourol. 2000;14(9):721–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Egilmez T, Guvel S, Kilinc F, Yaycioglu O, Ozkardes H. Management of complete ureteral obstructions with a transluminal puncture technique. Int Braz J Urol. 2005;31(3):264–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Conlin MJ, Gomella LG, Bagley DH. Endoscopic ureteroureterostomy for obliterated ureteral segments. J Urol. 1996;156(4):1394–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Knowles DR, Staiman VR, Gupta M. Long-term results of the treatment of complete distal ureteral stenosis using a cutting balloon catheter device. J Urol. 2001;166(6):2087–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Orsi F, Penco S, Matei V, et al. Treatment of ureterointestinal anastomotic strictures by diathermal or cryoplastic dilatation. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2007;30(5):943–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Heran MKS, Bergen DC, MacNeily AE. The use of cryoplasty in a benign ureteric stricture. Pediatr Radiol. 2010;40(11):1806–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Yiu WK, Cheng SWK, Sumpio BE. Vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis induced by “supercooling” and rewarming. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2006;17(12):1971–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Bagley DH, Conlin MJ, Liu JB. Device for intraluminal incision guided by endoluminal ultrasonography. J Endourol. 1996;10(5):421–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    El-Nahas AR, Shokeir AA. Endourological treatment of nonmalignant upper urinary tract complications after urinary diversion. Urology. 2010;76(6):1302–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Poulakis V, Witzsch U, De Vries R, Becht E. Cold-knife endoureterotomy for nonmalignant ureterointestinal anastomotic strictures. Urology. 2003;61(3): 512–7. discussion 517.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Cornud F, Lefebvre JF, Chretien Y, Helenon O, Casanova JM, Moreau JF. Percutaneous transrenal electro-incision of ureterointestinal anastomotic strictures: long-term results and comparison of fluoroscopic and endoscopic guidance. J Urol. 1996;155(5):1575–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Meretyk S, Clayman RV, Kavoussi LR, Kramolowsky EV, Picus DD. Endourological treatment of ureteroenteric anastomotic strictures: long-term followup. J Urol. 1991;145(4):723–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Meretyk S, Albala DM, Clayman RV, Denstedt JD, Kavoussi LR. Endoureterotomy for treatment of ureteral strictures. J Urol. 1992;147(6):1502–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Seseke F, Heuser M, Zoller G, Plothe KD, Ringert RH. Treatment of iatrogenic postoperative ureteral strictures with acucise endoureterotomy. Eur Urol. 2002;42(4):370–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kim FJ, Herrell SD, Jahoda AE, Albala DM. Complications of acucise endopyelotomy. J Endourol. 1998;12(5):433–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Wagner JR, D’Agostino R, Babayan RK. Renal arterioureteral hemorrhage: a complication of acucise endopyelotomy. Urology. 1996;48(1):139–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Ramsay JW, Payne SR, Gosling PT, Whitfield HN, Wickham JE, Levison DA. The effects of double J stenting on unobstructed ureters. An experimental and clinical study. Br J Urol. 1985;57(6):630–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Levine RS, Pollack HM, Banner MP. Transient ureteral obstruction after ureteral stenting. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1982;138(2):323–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Moon YT, Kerbl K, Pearle MS, et al. Evaluation of optimal stent size after endourologic incision of ureteral strictures. J Endourol. 1995;9(1):15–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Soria F, Sanchez FM, Sun F, Ezquerra J, Duran E, Uson J. Comparative study of ureteral stents following endoureterotomy in the porcine model: 3 vs 6 weeks and 7F vs 14F. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2005;28(6):773–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Yu HL, Ye LY, Lin MH, Yang Y, Miao R, Hu XJ. Treatment of benign ureteral stricture by double J stents using high-pressure balloon angioplasty. Chin Med J. 2011;124(6):943–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Davis DM, Strong GH, Drake WM. Intubated ureterotomy; experimental work and clinical results. J Urol. 1948;59(5):851–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kerbl K, Chandhoke PS, Figenshau RS, Stone AM, Clayman RV. Effect of stent duration on ureteral healing following endoureterotomy in an animal-model. J Urol. 1993;150(4):1302–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Matlaga BR, Shah OD, Singh D, Streem SB, Assimos DG. Ureterocalicostomy: a contemporary experience. Urology. 2005;65(1):42–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Matlaga BR, Shah OD, Hart LJ, Assimos DG. Ileal ureter substitution: a contemporary series. Urology. 2003;62(6):998–1001.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Simmons MN, Gill IS, Fergany AF, Kaouk JH, Desai MM. Laparoscopic ureteral reconstruction for benign stricture disease. Urology. 2007;69(2):280–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Boxer RJ, Fritzsche P, Skinner DG, et al. Replacement of the ureter by small intestine: clinical application and results of the ileal ureter in 89 patients. J Urol. 1979;121(6):728–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Eisenberg ML, Lee KL, Zumrutbas AE, Meng MV, Freise CE, Stoller ML. Long-term outcomes and late complications of laparoscopic nephrectomy with renal autotransplantation. J Urol. 2008;179(1): 240–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Shaaban AA, Abdel-Latif M, Mosbah A, et al. A randomized study comparing an antireflux system with a direct ureteric anastomosis in patients with orthotopic deal neobladders. BJU Int. 2006;97(5):1057–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Michel MS, Trojan L, Rassweiler JJ. Complications in percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Eur Urol. 2007;51(4):899–906. discussion 906.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Mousavi-Bahar SH, Mehrabi S, Moslemi MK. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy complications in 671 consecutive patients: a single-center experience. Urol J. 2011;8(4):271–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Gerber GS, Kuznetzov D, Leef JA, Rosenblum J, Steinberg GD. Holmium: YAG laser endoureterotomy in the treatment of ureteroenteric strictures following orthotopic urinary diversion. Tech Urol. 1999;5(1):45–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Hyams ES, Winer AG, Shah O. Retrograde ureteral and renal access in patients with urinary diversion. Urology. 2009;74(1):47–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Eisenberg ML, Lee KL, Stoller ML. Endoscopic management of obstructive complications in ureterosigmoidostomy. Urology. 2007;70(6):1048–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Lovaco F, Serrano A, Fernandez I, Perez P, Gonzalez-Peramato P. Endoureterotomy by intraluminal invagination for nonmalignant ureterointestinal anastomotic strictures: description of a new surgical technique and long-term followup. J Urol. 2005;174(5):1851–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Kramolowsky EV, Clayman RV, Weyman PJ. Management of ureterointestinal anastomotic strictures—comparison of open surgical and endourological repair. J Urol. 1988;139(6):1195–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Cornud F, Mendelsberg M, Chretien Y, et al. Fluoroscopically guided percutaneous transrenal electroincision of ureterointestinal anastomotic strictures. J Urol. 1992;147(3):578–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Liatsikos EN, Karnabatidis D, Katsanos K, et al. Metal stents for the management of malignant ureteral obstruction. J Endourol. 2008;22(9):2099–100. discussion 2107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Liatsikos EN, Kagadis GC, Karnabatidis D, et al. Application of self-expandable metal stents for ureteroileal anastomotic strictures: long-term results. J Urol. 2007;178(1):169–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Antimisiaris SG, Siablis D, Liatsikos E, et al. Liposome-coated metal stents: an in vitro evaluation of controlled-release modality in the ureter. J Endourol. 2000;14(9):743–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Benson AD, Taylor ER, Schwartz BF. Metal ureteral stent for benign and malignant ureteral obstruction. J Urol. 2011;185(6):2217–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Basiri A, Nikoobakht MR, Simforoosh N, Hosseini Moghaddam SM. Ureteroscopic management of urological complications after renal transplantation. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2006;40(1):53–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Basiri A, Simforoosh N, Nikoobakht M, Hosseini Moghaddam MM. The role of ureteroscopy in the treatment of renal transplantation complications. Urol J. 2004;1(1):27–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Best CD, Bolton DM, Bretan P, Stoller ML. Endoscopic ureteroneocystostomy for post-transplantation ureterovesical junction stenosis. J Endourol. 1994;8(3):213–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Mongha R, Gupta A, Bansal P, Narayan S, Bera MK. Vesicoscopic ureterotomy: novel technique for management of posttransplant ureteric stricture. Transplant Proc. 2009;41(1):173–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Bhayani SB, Landman J, Slotoroff C, Figenshau RS. Transplant ureter stricture: acucise endoureterotomy and balloon dilation are effective. J Endourol. 2003;17(1):19–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Erturk E, Burzon DT, Waldman D. Treatment of transplant ureteral stenosis with endoureterotomy. J Urol. 1999;161(2):412–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Schwartz BF, Chatham JR, Bretan P, Goharder­akhshan R, Stoller ML. Treatment of refractory ­kidney transplant ureteral strictures using balloon cautery endoureterotomy. Urology. 2001;58(4): 536–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Giessing M. Transplant ureter stricture following renal transplantation: surgical options. Transplant Proc. 2011;43(1):383–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Del Pizzo JJ, Jacobs SC, Bartlett ST, Sklar GN. The use of bladder for total transplant ureteral reconstruction. J Urol. 1998;159(3):750–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Gowda BDR, Goldsmith P, Ahmad N. Boari flap vesicocalycostomy: a salvage drainage procedure for complete ureteric stricture and pyelocalyceal fistula. Clin Transplant. 2009;23(1):129–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Borden Jr LS, Pais Jr VM, Assimos DG. Repetitive ureteral stenting for management of transplant graft ureteral obstruction. Int Braz J Urol. 2006;32(2):142–5. discussion 145–146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Benoit G, Alexandre L, Moukarzel M, Yataghene Y, Charpentier B, Jardin A. Percutaneous antegrade dilation of ureteral strictures in kidney transplants. J Urol. 1993;150(1):37–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Anastasescu R, Merrot T, Chaumoitre K, Panuel M, Alessandrini P. Antegrade percutaneous balloon dilation of ureteral strictures after failed pelviureteric or ureterovesical reimplantation in children. Urology. 2011;77(6):1444–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Byun SS, Kim JH, Oh SJ, Kim HH. Simple retrograde balloon dilation for treatment of ureteral strictures: etiology-based analysis. Yonsei Med J. 2003;44(2):273–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    ElAbd SA, ElShaer AF, ElMahrouky AS, ElAshry OM, Emran MA. Long-term results of endourologic and percutaneous management of ureteral strictures in bilharzial patients. J Endourol. 1996;10(1): 35–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Hoe JW. Benign ureteric strictures–management by percutaneous interventional uro-radiological techniques. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 1993;22(5): 670–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Banner MP, Pollack HM. Dilatation of ureteral stenoses: techniques and experience in 44 patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1984;143(4):789–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Farah NB, Roddie M, Lord RH, Williams G. Ureteric obstruction in renal transplants: the role of percutaneous balloon dilatation. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1991;6(12):977–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Gnessin E, Yossepowitch O, Holland R, Livne PM, Lifshitz DA. Holmium laser endoureterotomy for benign ureteral stricture: a single center experience. J Urol. 2009;182(6):2775–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Hibi H, Kato K, Mitsui K, et al. Endoscopic ureteral incision using the holmium:YAG laser. Int J Urol. 2001;8(12):657–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Erdogru T, Kutlu O, Koksal T, et al. Endoscopic treatment of ureteric strictures: acucise, cold-knife endoureterotomy and wall stents as a salvage approach. Urol Int. 2005;74(2):140–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Lojanapiwat B, Soonthonpun S, Wudhikarn S. Endoscopic treatment of benign ureteral strictures. Asian J Surg. 2002;25(2):130–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Yamada S, Ono Y, Ohshima S, Miyake K. Transurethral ureteroscopic ureterotomy assisted by a prior balloon dilation for relieving ureteral strictures. J Urol. 1995;153(5):1418–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Steiner DL, Johns-Putra L, Lyon S. Ureteroplasty with a cutting balloon: a novel approach to ureteric anastomotic strictures. Australas Radiol. 2007; 51(2):143–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Touiti D, Gelet A, Deligne E, et al. Treatment of uretero-intestinal and ureterovesical strictures by acucise balloon catheter. Eur Urol. 2002;42(1):49–54. discussion 55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Ramaswamy K, Shah O. Antibiotic prophylaxis after uncomplicated ureteroscopic stone treatment: is there a difference? J Endourol. 2011;26(2):122–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Wolf Jr JS, Bennett CJ, Dmochowski RR, Hollenbeck BK, Pearle MS, Schaeffer AJ. Best practice policy statement on urologic surgery antimicrobial prophylaxis. J Urol. 2008;179(4):1379–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Milhoua PM, Miller NL, Cookson MS, Chang SS, Smith JA, Herrell SD. Primary endoscopic management versus open revision of ureteroenteric anastomotic strictures after urinary diversion—single institution contemporary series. J Endourol. 2009; 23(3):551–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Lane BR, Desai MM, Hegarty NJ, Streem SB. Long-term efficacy of holmium laser endoureterotomy for benign ureteral strictures. Urology. 2006;67(5): 894–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Johnson CD, Oke EJ, Dunnick NR, et al. Percutaneous balloon dilatation of ureteral strictures. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1987;148(1):181–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Lin CM, Tsai TH, Lin TC, et al. Holmium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser endoureterotomy for benign ureteral strictures: a single-centre experience. Acta Chir Belg. 2009;109(6):746–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Smith AD. Management of iatrogenic ureteral strictures after urological procedures. J Urol. 1988; 140(6):1372–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Watterson JD, Sofer M, Wollin TA, Nott L, Denstedt JD. Holmium: YAG laser endoureterotomy for ureterointestinal strictures. J Urol. 2002;167(4): 1692–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Laven BA, O’Connor RC, Steinberg GD, Gerber GS. Long-term results of antegrade endoureterotomy using the holmium laser in patients with ureterointestinal strictures. Urology. 2001;58(6):924–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Ravery V, de la Taille A, Hoffmann P, et al. Balloon catheter dilatation in the treatment of ureteral and ureteroenteric stricture. J Endourol. 1998;12(4): 335–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Beckmann CF, Roth RA, Bihrle 3rd W. Dilation of benign ureteral strictures. Radiology. 1989;172(2): 437–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Tavakkoli Tabassi K, Yarmohamadi A, Mohammadi S. Triamcinolone injection following internal urethrotomy for treatment of urethral stricture. Urol J. 2011;8(2):132–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Mazdak H, Izadpanahi MH, Ghalamkari A, et al. Internal urethrotomy and intraurethral submucosal injection of triamcinolone in short bulbar urethral strictures. Int Urol Nephrol. 2010;42(3):565–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Corcoran AT, Smaldone MC, Ricchiuti DD, Averch TD. Management of benign ureteral strictures in the endoscopic era. J Endourol. 2009;23(11):1909–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Kwak S, Leef JA, Rosenblum JD. Percutaneous balloon catheter dilatation of benign ureteral strictures: effect of multiple dilatation procedures on long-term patency. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1995;165(1): 97–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Myren CJ, Nielsen KD, Madsen M, Nielsen HV. Balloon dilatation of ureteral strictures. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 1993;27(2):251–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Bach T, Geavlete B, Herrmann TW, Gross AJ. Retrograde blind endoureterotomy for subtotal ureteral strictures: a new technique. J Endourol. 2008;22(11):2565–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Hibi H, Ohori T, Taki T, Yamada Y, Honda N. Long-term results of endoureterotomy using a holmium laser. Int J Urol. 2007;14(9):872–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Singal RK, Denstedt JD, Razvi HA, Chun SS. Holmium:YAG laser endoureterotomy for treatment of ureteral stricture. Urology. 1997;50(6):875–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Schneider AW, Conrad S, Busch R, Otto U. The cold-knife technique for endourological management of stenoses in the upper urinary tract. J Urol. 1991;146(4):961–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Nassar OA, Alsafa ME. Experience with ureteroenteric strictures after radical cystectomy and diversion: open surgical revision. Urology. 2011;78(2): 459–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Yagi S, Goto T, Kawamoto K, Hayami H, Matsushita S, Nakagawa M. Long-term results of percutaneous balloon dilation for ureterointestinal anastomotic strictures. Int J Urol. 2002;9(5):241–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Shapiro MJ, Banner MP, Amendola MA, Gordon RL, Pollack HM, Wein AJ. Balloon catheter dilation of ureteroenteric strictures: long-term results. Radiology. 1988;168(2):385–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Poulakis V, Witzsch U, de Vries R, Becht E. Antegrade percutaneous endoluminal treatment of non-malignant ureterointestinal anastomotic ­strictures following urinary diversion. Eur Urol. 2001;39(3):308–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Bosma RJ, van Driel MF, van Son WJ, de Ruiter AJ, Mensink HJ. Endourological management of ureteral obstruction after renal transplantation. J Urol. 1996;156(3):1099–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Katz R, Pode D, Gofrit ON, et al. Transurethral incision of ureteroneocystostomy strictures in kidney transplant recipients. BJU Int. 2003;92(7):769–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Boyvat F, Aytekin C, Colak T, Firat A, Karakayali H, Haberal M. Memokath metallic stent in the treatment of transplant kidney ureter stenosis or occlusion. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2005;28(3): 326–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Lin DW, Bush WH, Mayo ME. Endourological treatment of ureteroenteric strictures: efficacy of acucise endoureterotomy. J Urol. 1999;162(3):696–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Kristo B, Phelan MW, Gritsch HA, Schulam PG. Treatment of renal transplant ureterovesical anastomotic strictures using antegrade balloon dilation with or without holmium:YAG laser endoureterotomy. Urology. 2003;62(5):831–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Kim JC, Banner MP, Ramchandani P, Grossman RA, Pollack HM. Balloon dilation of ureteral strictures after renal transplantation. Radiology. 1993;186(3):717–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Gdor Y, Gabr AH, Faerber GJ, Wolf Jr JS. Holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser endoure­terotomy for the treatment of transplant kidney ureteral strictures. Transplantation. 2008;85(9): 1318–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Boylu U, Oommen M, Raynor M, Lee BR, Blank B, Thomas R. Ureteroenteric anastomotic stricture: novel use of a cutting balloon dilator. J Endourol. 2010;24(7):1175–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Cornud F, Chretien Y, Helenon O, et al. Percutaneous incision of stenotic uroenteric anastomaoses with a cutting balloon catheter: long-term results. Radiology. 2000;214(2):358–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Voegeli DR, Crummy AB, McDermott JC, Jensen SR. Percutaneous dilation of ureteral strictures in renal transplant patients. Radiology. 1988;169(1):185–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of UrologyNew York University School of MedicineNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of UrologyNYU Langone Medical CenterNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations