Ureteroscopy pp 443-451 | Cite as

Surgical Simulation

  • Amy E. KrambeckEmail author
  • Matthew T. Gettman
  • Mitra R. de Cógáin
Part of the Current Clinical Urology book series (CCU)


Due to multiple factors, the approach to resident endourologic training has recently changed. Resident-patient contact has decreased secondary to restricted work hours, financial constraints of teaching institutions, and medicolegal concerns. Additionally, there is an increased breadth of knowledge and surgical skill required for Urology trainees, with the ongoing development of new minimally invasive techniques. The use of bench models, animal and cadaveric models, and virtual reality (VR) simulators has been proposed to bridge the existing training gap. Multiple studies have shown that ureteroscopic simulation is a valid method for teaching a basic skill set to residents, with improvement of skills throughout the completion of a designated curriculum. No widely accepted training module for ureteroscopic simulation has yet been established, although many authors propose a curriculum which incorporates the use of validated simulators in repetitive training activities, under the guidance of experts in the field. This chapter serves to further explain the increasing need for ureteroscopic simulation, to describe the validation of various simulators, to review simulators that are currently available, and to discuss the implementation of a ureteroscopic simulation curriculum.


Virtual Reality Simulation Training Surgical Simulation Simulation Activity Virtual Reality Simulator 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amy E. Krambeck
    • 1
    Email author
  • Matthew T. Gettman
    • 1
  • Mitra R. de Cógáin
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of UrologyMayo ClinicRochesterUSA

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