Intrarenal Stenosis and Stones: Calyceal Diverticulum and Infundibular Stenosis
Kidney stones associated with intrarenal stenosis pose a special problem for treatment as often the non-invasive E-SWL approach will not yield a successful outcome. Endoscopic surgical techniques and in particular the minimally invasive retrograde ureteroscopic approach of retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) are better suited to address the anatomical anomaly as well as providing improved stone-free rates through endoscopically controlled complete stone fragmentation and active stone retrieval.
Since metabolic stone risk factors concomitantly exist in many of these patients, a comprehensive approach with surgical treatment and stone risk factor evaluation and management is required to achieve lasting good outcomes of freedom of stones and symptoms.
KeywordsHolmium Laser Stone Fragmentation Medullary Sponge Kidney Retrograde Pyelogram Calyceal Diverticulum
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