Complex Anatomy: Horseshoe, Pelvic, and Malrotated Kidneys
This chapter focuses on the use of flexible ureteroscopy for the treatment of calculi in patients with complex renal anatomy. This includes patients with horseshoe, pelvic, and malrotated kidneys. After discussing the anatomy and embryology of these renal anomalies, this chapter explains how these renal anomalies may lead to the formation of renal calculi. As well an analysis of the literature that is available on this subject is performed. Finally, a description of the technique and equipment used at our institution is reviewed.
KeywordsRenal Pelvis Renal Calculus Holmium Laser Horseshoe Kidney Stone Burden
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