Flexible Ureteroscopy: Holmium:YAG Laser and Optical Fibers
The holmium:YAG has become that gold standard for intracorporeal lithotripsy during flexible ureteroscopy. The combination of the wide margin of safety when working in a fluid environment coupled with its ability to urinary stones regardless of their chemical composition has led to its widespread adoption. However urologists are being offered an ever widening area of holmium:YAG lasers and laser fibers. In this chapter the clinical utility of the holmium:YAG laser as applied to flexible ureteroscopy is addressed. In addition a review of laser optical fibers and how their differing properties can impact performance and safety is presented.
KeywordsPulse Energy Laser Energy Laser Fiber Fiber Failure Laser Lithotripsy
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