Pathogenesis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Obesity

Chapter
Part of the Respiratory Medicine book series (RM, volume 19)

Abstract

Obstructive sleep apnea is a sleep-related breathing disorder characterized by repetitive upper airway obstruction and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Obesity is one of the primary modifiable risk factors for the management of patients with sleep apnea as there is a positive association between the increasing obesity prevalence and sleep apnea prevalence. Several mechanisms link obesity and sleep apnea pathogenesis, including the potential increase in additional mechanical load on the upper and lower respiratory systems from regional adiposity, possible effects of obesity-related inflammation on neuromuscular and neuroventilatory function of the upper airway, or a combination of these effects. By examining the relationship between obesity and obstructive sleep apnea as well as the mechanisms by which obesity may contribute to the development of sleep apnea and its related comorbidities, we can evaluate the effect of weight reduction on the management of sleep apnea.

Keywords

Sleep apnea risk factors Regional adiposity Upper airway pathophysiology Pharynx Weight loss Sleep-disordered breathing treatments Constant positive air pressure Bariatric surgery 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care MedicineJohns Hopkins School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care MedicineJohns Hopkins School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA

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