Advertisement

Oxidative Stress in Benign Prostate Hyperplasia

  • Murat Savas
Chapter
Part of the Oxidative Stress in Applied Basic Research and Clinical Practice book series (OXISTRESS)

Abstract

The greatest risk factor for developing benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is advanced age. Potential molecular and physiologic contributors to the frequency of BPH occurrence in older individuals include the oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and alterations in tissue microenvironment. As BPH and aberrant changes in reactive oxygen species become more common with aging, oxygen species signaling may play an important role in the development and progression of this disease. Increased oxidative stress is a result of either increased reactive oxygen species generation or a loss of antioxidant defense mechanisms. Oxidative stress is associated with several pathological conditions including inflammation and infection. Oxygen species are byproducts of normal cellular metabolism and play vital roles in stimulation of signaling pathways in response to changing intra and extracellular environmental conditions. This review is aimed to explore the mechanism of oxidative stress in prostate and the possibility of drug development against oxidative stress for prostatic disease prevention.

Keywords

Oxidative stress Benign prostate hyperplasia Prostatic enlargement Apoptosis Steroid hormones Prostate 

References

  1. 1.
    Garraway WM, Collins GN, Lee RJ. High prevalence of benign prostatic hypertrophy in the community. Lancet. 1991;338:469.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Carter HB, Coffey DS. The prostate: an increasing medical problem. Prostate. 1990;16:39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lee KL, Peehl DM. Molecular and cellular pathogenesis of benign prostatic hyperplasia. J Urol. 2004;172:1784.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Barzilai A, Rotman G, Shiloh Y. ATM deficiency and oxidative stress: a new dimension of defective response to DNA damage. DNA Repair. 2002;22:3–25.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Naka K, Muraguchi T, Hoshii T, et al. Regulation of reactive oxygen species and genomic stability in hematopoietic stem cells. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2008;10:1883–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lambeth JD. Nox enzymes, ROS, and chronic disease: an example of antagonistic pleiotropy. Free Radic Biol Med. 2007;43:332–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sauer H, Wartenberg M, Hescheler J. Reactive oxygen species as intracellular messengers during cell growth and differentiation. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2001;11:173–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bierhoff E, Vogel J, Benz M, et al. Stromal nodules in benign prostatic hyperplasia. Eur Urol. 1996;29:345–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Meigs JB, Mohr B, Barry MJ, et al. Risk factors for clinical benign prostatic enlargement in a community-based population of healthy aging men. J Clin Epidemiol. 2001;54:935–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Michel MC, Mehlburger L, Schumacher H, et al. Hyperinsulinaemia as a risk factor for developing benign prostatic hyperplasia. J Urol. 2001;163(6):1725–9.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Verhamme K, Dieleman J, Bleumink G, et al. Incidence and prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic enlargement in primary care—the Triumph project. Eur Urol. 2002;42:323–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    McNeal J. Pathology of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Insight into etiology. Urol Clin North Am. 1990;17(3):477–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    McNeal JE. Origin and evolution of benign prostatic enlargement. Invest Urol. 1978;15(4):340–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Thomson AA, Marker PC. Branching morphogenesis in the prostate gland and seminal vesicles. Differentiation. 2006;74(7):382–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gooren L. Androgen deficiency in the aging male: benefits and risks of androgen supplementation. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2003;85(2–5):349–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Green JS, Holden ST, Bose P, et al. An investigation into the relationship between prostate size, peak urinary flow rate and male erectile dysfunction. Int J Impot Res. 2001;13(6):322–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kaufman JM. The effect of androgen supplementation therapy on the prostate. Aging Male. 2003;6(3):166–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kirby RS, Lowe D, Bultitude MI. Intra-prostatic urinary reflux: an aetiological factor in abacterial prostatitis. Br J Urol. 1982;54(6):729–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Marks LS, Mostaghel EA, Nelson PS. Prostate tissue androgens: history and current clinical relevance. Urology. 2008;72(2):247–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Masumori N, Tsukamoto T, Kumamoto Y, et al. Japanese men have smaller prostate volumes but comparable urinary flow rates relative to American men: results of community based studies in 2 countries. J Urol. 1996;155(4):1324–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mostaghel EA, Nelson PS. Intracrine androgen metabolism in prostate cancer progression: mechanisms of castration resistance and therapeutic implications. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;22(2):243–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Belanger A, Candas B, Dupont A, et al. Changes in serum concentrations of conjugated and unconjugated steroids in 40- to 80-year-old men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1994;79(4):1086–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Coffey DS, Walsh PC. Clinical and experimental studies of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Urol Clin North Am. 1990;17(3):461–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Collins GN, Lee RJ, Russell EB, et al. Ultrasonically determined patterns of enlargement in benign prostatic hyperplasia. Br J Urol. 1993;71(4):451–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Fingerhut B, Veenema RJ. Histology and radioautography of induced benign enlargement of the mouse prostate. Invest Urol. 1966;4(2):112–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ricke WA, McPherson SJ, Bianco JJ, et al. Prostatic hormonal carcinogenesis is mediated by in situ estrogen production and estrogen receptor alpha signaling. FASEB J. 2008;22(5):1512–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ricke WA, Ishii K, Ricke EA, et al. Steroid hormones stimulate human prostate cancer progression and metastasis. Int J Cancer. 2006;118(9):2123–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Streng TK, Talo A, Andersson KE, et al. A dose dependent dual effect of oestrogen on voiding in the male mouse? BJU Int. 2005;96(7):1126–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Delongchamps NB, de la Roza G, Chandan V, et al. Evaluation of prostatitis in autopsied prostates—is chronic inflammation more associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia or cancer? J Urol. 2008;179:1736–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    de la Rosette JJ, Witjes WP, Schafer W, et al. Relationships between lower urinary tract symptoms and bladder outlet obstruction: results from the ICS-“BPH” study. Neurourol Urodyn. 1998;17(2):99–108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kohnen PW, Drach GW. Patterns of inflammation in prostatic hyperplasia: a histologic and bacterial study. J Urol. 1979;121:755–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kramer G, Marberger M. Could inflammation be a key component in the progression of benign prostatic hyperplasia? Curr Opin Urol. 2006;16:25–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Steiner G, Gessl A, Kramer G, et al. Phenotype and function of peripheral and prostatic lymphocytes in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. J Urol. 1994;151:480–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Theyer G, Kramer G, Assmann I. Phenotypic characterization of infiltrating leukocytes in benign prostatic hyperplasia. Lab Invest. 1992;66:96–107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    McNeal JE. Regional morphology and pathology of the prostate. Am J Clin Pathol. 1968;49(3):347–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bennett BD, Culberson DE, Petty CS. Histopathology of prostatitis [abstract]. J Urol. 1990;143:265.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Weiss JP, Wein A, Jacobs J, et al. Use of nitrofurantoin macro-crystals after transurethral prostatectomy. J Urol. 1983;130:479.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    De Marzo AM, Platz EA, Sutcliffe S, et al. Inflammation in prostate carcinogenesis. Nat Rev Cancer. 2007;7:256–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Nickel JC, Downey J, Young I, et al. Asymptomatic inflammation and/or infection in benign prostatic hyperplasia. BJU Int. 1999;84:976–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gerstenbluth RE, Seftel AD, MacLennan GT, et al. Distribution of chronic prostatitis in radical prostatectomy specimens with up-regulation of bcl-2 in areas of inflammation. J Urol. 2002;167:2267–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Roehrborn CG. Benign prostatic hyperplasia: an overview. Rev Urol. 2005;7(9):S3–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Roehrborn CG. Definition of at-risk patients: baseline variables. BJU Int. 2006;97 Suppl 2:7–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Nickel JC, Roehrborn CG, O’Leary MP, et al. The relationship between prostate inflammation and lower urinary tract symptoms: examination of baseline data from the REDUCE trial. Eur Urol. 2008;54:1379–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Nickel JC. Inflammation and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Urol Clin North Am. 2007;35:109–15.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Parsons JK, Carter HB, Partin AW, et al. Metabolic factors associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91(7):2562–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Popp KA. Assignment of patients into the classification of cardiomyopathies. Circulation. 1992;86(5):1622–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hammersten J, Hogstedt B. Clinical, anthropometric, metabolic and insulin profile of men with fast annual growth rates of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Blood Press. 1999;8(1):29–36.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Chute CG, et al. Obesity and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Am J Epidemiol. 1994;140(11):989–1002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Boon TA, Van Venrooij GE, Eckhardt MD. Effect of diabetes mellitus on lower urinary tract symptoms and dysfunction in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Curr Urol Rep. 2001;2(4):297–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Wei YH, Lu CY, Lee HC, et al. Oxidative damage and mutation to mitochondrial DNA and age-dependent decline of mitochondrial respiratory function. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1998;854:155–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Finkel T, Holbrook NJ. Oxidants, oxidative stress and the biology of ageing. Nature. 2000;408:239–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Harman D. Aging: a theory based on free radical and radiation chemistry. J Gerontol. 1956;11:298–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Harman D. The aging process. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1981;78:7124–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Ishii T, Miyazawa M, Hartman PS, et al. Mitochondrial superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) inducible “mev-1” animal models for aging research. BMB Rep. 2011;44(5):298–305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Untergasser G, Rumpold H, Hermann M, et al. Proliferative disorders of the aging human prostate: involvement of protein hormones and their receptors. Exp Gerontol. 1999;34:275–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Rajah R, Valentinis B, Cohen P. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding protein-3 induces apoptosis and mediates the effects of transforming growth factor-beta1 on programmed cell death through a p53- and IGF-independent mechanism. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:12181–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Berry SJ, Coffey DS, Walsh PC, et al. The development of human benign prostatic hyperplasia with age. J Urol. 1984;132:474–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Juul A, Main K, Blum WF, et al. The ratio between serum levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and the IGF binding proteins (IGFBP-1, 2 and 3) decrease with age in healthy adults and is increased in acromegalic patients. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1994;41:85–91.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Mehraein-Ghomi F, Lee E, Church DR, et al. JunD mediates androgen-induced oxidative stress in androgen dependent LNCaP human prostate cancer cells. Prostate. 2008;68:924–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Shigemura K, Sung SY, Kubo H, et al. Reactive oxygen species mediate androgen receptor- and serum starvation-elicited downstream signaling of ADAM9 expression in human prostate cancer cells. Prostate. 2007;67:722–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Haffner S, Taegtmeyer H. Epidemic obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Circulation. 2003;108:1541–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Furukawa S, Fujita T, Shimabukuro M, et al. Increased oxidative stress in obesity and its impact on metabolic syndrome. J Clin Invest. 2004;114:1752–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Nelson WG, De Marzo AM, Isaacs WB. Prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2003;349:366–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Wang W, Bergh A, Damber JE. Chronic inflammation in benign prostate hyperplasia is associated with focal upregulation of cyclooxygenase-2, Bcl-2, and cell proliferation in the glandular epithelium. Prostate. 2004;61:60–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Di Silverio F, Gentile V, De Matteis A, et al. Distribution of inflammation, pre-malignant lesions, incidental carcinoma in histologically confirmed benign prostatic hyperplasia: a retrospective analysis. Eur Urol. 2003;43:164–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Siegfried C, Wrenger M, Senge T, et al. Immunhistochemical determination of age related proliferation rates in normal and benign hyperplastic human prostates. Urol Res. 1993;21:305–8.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Claus S, Berges R, Senge T, et al. Cell kinetic in epithelium and stroma of benign prostatic hyperplasia. J Urol. 1997;158:217–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Berges RR, Vucanovic J, Epstein JI, et al. Implication of cell cycle kinetic changes during the progression of human prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 1995;1:473–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Arck PC, Overall R, Spatz K, et al. Towards a “free radical theory of graying”: melanocyte apoptosis in the aging human hair follicle is an indicator of oxidative stress induced tissue damage. FASEB J. 2006;20:1567–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Cho SG, Choi EJ. Apoptotic signaling pathways: caspases and stress-activated protein kinases. J Biochem Mol Biol. 2002;35:24–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Matsuzawa A, Ichijo H. Stress-responsive protein kinases in redox-regulated apoptosis signaling. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2005;7:472–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Assefa Z, Van Laethem A, Garmyn M, et al. Ultraviolet radiation-induced apoptosis in keratinocytes: on the role of cytosolic factors. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005;1755:90–106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Gupta S, Gollapudi S. Molecular mechanisms of TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis in aging human T cell subsets. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2005;37:1034–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Goswami A, Dikshit P, Mishra A, et al. Oxidative stress promotes mutant huntingtin aggregation and mutant huntingtin-dependent cell death by mimicking proteasomal malfunction. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;342:184–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Zhang R, Al-Lamki R, Bai L, et al. Thioredoxin-2 inhibits mitochondria-located ASK1-mediated apoptosis in a JNK-independent manner. Circ Res. 2004;94:1483–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Imoto K, Kukidome D, Nishikawa T, et al. Impact of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 on insulin signaling. Diabetes. 2006;55:1197–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kevin CK, Hannah JZ. An integrated view of oxidative stress in aging: basic mechanisms, functional effects, and pathological considerations. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007;292:R18–36.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Migliaccio E, Giorgio M, Pelicci PG. Apoptosis and aging: role of p66Shc redox protein. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2006;8:600–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Migliaccio E, Giorgio M, Mele S, et al. The p66shc adaptor protein controls oxidative stress response and life span in mammals. Nature. 1999;402:309–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Pellegrini M, Finetti F, Petronilli V, et al. p66SHC Promotes T cell apoptosis by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction and impaired Ca2+ homeostasis. Cell Death Differ. 2007;14(2):338–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Thompson IM, Coltman CA, Brawley OW, et al. Chemoprevention of prostate cancer. Semin Urol. 1995;13:122–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Wong YC, Wang YZ. Growth factors and epithelial-stromal interactions in prostate cancer development. Int Rev Cytol. 2000;199:65–116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Asirvatham AJ, Schmidt M, Gao B, et al. Androgens regulate the immune/inflammatory response and cell survival pathways in rat ventral prostate epithelial cells. Endocrinology. 2006;147:257–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Pathak S, Singh R, Verschoyle RD, et al. Androgen manipulation alters oxidative DNA adduct levels in androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells grown in vitro and in vivo. Cancer Lett. 2008;261:74–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Miyake H, Hara I, Kamidono S, et al. Oxidative DNA damage in patients with prostate cancer and its response to treatment. J Urol. 2004;171:1533–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Fernández-Checa JC, Kaplowitz N, García-Ruiz C, et al. GSH transport in mitochondria: defense against TNF-induced oxidative stress and alcohol induced defect. Am J Physiol. 1997;273:G7–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Armstrong JS, Steinauer KK, Hornung B, et al. Role of glutathione depletion and reactive oxygen species generation in apoptotic signaling in a human B lymphoma cell line. Cell Death Differ. 2002;9:252–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Tsurusaki T, Aoki D, Kanetake H, et al. Zone-dependent expression of estrogen receptors alpha and beta in human benign prostatic hyperplasia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88:1333–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Linja MJ, Savinainen KJ, Tammela TL, et al. Expression of ERalpha and ERbeta in prostate cancer. Prostate. 2003;55:180–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Kwon SM, Kim SI, Chun DC, et al. Development of rat prostatitis model by oral administration of isoflavone and its characteristics. Yonsei Med J. 2001;42:395–404.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Harris MT, Feldberg RS, Lau KM, et al. Expression of proinflammatory genes during estrogen-induced inflammation of the rat prostate. Prostate. 2000;44:19–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Ho E, Boileau TW, Bray TM. Dietary influences on endocrine-inflammatory interactions in prostate cancer development. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2004;428:109–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Smith MR, Morton RA, Barnette KG, Sieber PR, et al. Toremifene to reduce fracture risk in men receiving androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. J Urol. 2010;184(4):1316–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Ricke WA, McPherson SJ, Bianco JJ, et al. Prostatic hormonal carcinogenesis is mediated by in situ estrogen production and estrogen receptor alpha signaling. FASEB J. 2008;22:1512–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Naber K, Weidner W. Chronic prostatitis: an infectious disease? J Antimicrob Chemother. 2000;46:157–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Palapattu GS, Sutcliffe S, Bastain PJ, et al. Prostate carcinogenesis and inflammation: emerging insights. Carcinogenesis. 2004;26:1170–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Sugar LM. Inflammation and prostate cancer. Can J Urol. 2006;13 Suppl 1:46–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Coffey DS. Similarities of prostate and breast cancer: evolution, diet and estrogens. Urology. 2001;57(Suppl):31–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Brössner C, Petritsch K, Fink K, et al. Phytoestrogen tissue levels in benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer and their association with prostatic diseases. Urology. 2004;64(4):707–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Baltaci S, Orhan D, Cogus C, et al. Inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in BPH, low and high grade PIN and prostate carcinoma. BJU Int. 2001;88:100–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Gradini R, Realacci M, Petrangeli E, et al. Nitric oxide synthases in normal and benign hyperplastic human prostate: immunohistochemistry and molecular biology. J Pathol. 1999;189:224–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Di Silverio F, Bosman C, Salvatori M, et al. Combination therapy with rofecoxib and finasteride in the treatment of men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Eur Urol. 2005;47:72–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Untergasser G, Madersbacher S, Berger P. Benign prostatic hyperplasia: age-related tissue remodeling. Exp Gerontol. 2005;40:121–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Kramer G, Steiner GE, Handisurya A, et al. Increased expression of lymphocyte- derived cytokines in benign hyperplastic prostate tissue, identification of the producing cell types, and effect of differentially expressed cytokines on stromal cell proliferation. Prostate. 2002;52:43–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Handisurya A, Steiner GE, Stix U, et al. Differential expression of interleukin-15, a pro-inflammatory cytokine and T-cell growth factor, and its receptor in human prostate. Prostate. 2001;49:251–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Konig JE, Senge T, Allhoff EP, et al. Analysis of the inflammatory network in benign prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer. Prostate. 2004;58:121–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Wang W, Bergh A, Damber JE. Chronic inflammation in benign prostate hyperplasia is associated with focal upregulation of cyclooxygenase-2, Bcl-2, and cell proliferation in the glandular epithelium. Prostate. 2004;61:60–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Kakehi Y, Segawa T, Wu XX, et al. Down-regulation of macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1/prostate derived factor in benign prostatic hyperplasia. Prostate. 2004;59:351–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Vykhovanets EV, Resnick MI, Marengo SR. The healthy rat prostate contains high levels of natural killer-like cells and unique subsets of CD4+ helper inducer T cells: implications for prostatitis. J Urol. 2005;173:1004–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Kramer G, Mitteregger D, Marberger M. Is benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) an immune inflammatory disease? Eur Urol. 2007;51:1202–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Roehrborn CG. Definition of at-risk patients: baseline variables. BJU Int. 2006;97(S2):7–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Andriole G, Bostwick D, Brawley O, et al. Chemoprevention of prostate cancer in men at high risk: rationale and design of the reduction by dutasteride of prostate cancer events (REDUCE) trial. J Urol. 2004;172:1314–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Nickel JC, Roehrborn CG, O’Leary MP, et al. The relationship between prostate inflammation and lower urinary tract symptoms: examination of baseline data from the REDUCE trial. J Urol. 2007;177 Suppl 4:34–5.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Stock D, Groome PA, Siemens DR. Inflammation and prostate cancer: a future target for prevention and therapy? Urol Clin North Am. 2008;35(1):117–30; vii. Review.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Merendino RA, Salvo F, Saija A, et al. Malondialdehyde in benign prostatic hypertrophy: a useful marker? Mediators Inflamm. 2003;12:127–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Rohrmann S, De Marzo AM, Smit E, et al. Serum C-reactive protein concentration and lower urinary tract symptoms in older men in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Prostate. 2005;52:43–58.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Castro P, Xia C, Gomez L, Lamb DJ, Ittmann M. Interleukin-8 expression is increased in senescent prostatic epithelial cells and promotes the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Prostate. 2005;60:153–9.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Penna G, Mondaini N, Amuchastegui S, et al. Seminal plasma cytokines and chemokines in prostate inflammation: interleukin 8 as a predictive biomarker in chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Eur Urol. 2007;51:524–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Sciarra A, Mariotti G, Salciccia S, Gomez AA, et al. Prostate growth and inflammation. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2008;108:254–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Narayanan NK, Nargi D, Horton L, et al. Inflammatory processes of prostate tissue microenvironment drive rat prostate carcinogenesis: preventive effects of celecoxib. Prostate. 2009;69:133–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Mechergui YM, Jemaa AB, Mezigh C, et al. The profile of prostate epithelial cytokines and its impact on sera prostate specific antigen levels. Inflammation. 2009;32(3):202–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Sandhu JS. Prostate cancer and chronic prostatitis. Curr Urol Rep. 2008;9:328–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Caruso C, Balistreri CR, Candore G, et al. Polymorphisms of pro-inflammatory genes and prostate cancer risk: a pharmacogenomic approach. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2009;58(12):1919–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Wong CP, Bray TM, Ho E. Induction of proinflammatory response in prostate cancer epithelial cells by activated macrophages. Cancer Lett. 2009;276:38–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    de Marzo AM, Platz EA, Sutcliffe S, et al. Inflammation in prostate carcinogenesis. Nature. 2007;7:256–69.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Harsch KM, Tasch JE, Heston WDW. Immunotherapies for prostate cancer. In: Chang C, editor. Prostate cancer: basic mechanisms and therapeutic approaches. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing; 2005. p. 33–54.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Penna G, Fibbi B, Amuchastegui S, Cossetti C, Aquilano F, Laverny G, et al. Human benign prostatic hyperplasia stromal cells as inducers and targets of chronic immunomediated inflammation. J Immunol. 2009;182:4056–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Kogan-Sakin I, Cohen M, Paland N, et al. Prostate stromal cells produce CXCL-1, CXCL-2, CXCL-3 and IL-8 in response to epithelia secreted IL-1. Carcinogenesis. 2009;30(4):698–705.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Penna G, Fibbi B, Amuchastegui S, Corsiero E, et al. The vitamin D receptor agonist elocalcitol inhibits IL-8-dependent benign prostatic hyperplasia stromal cell proliferation and inflammatory response by targeting the RhoA/RhoKinase and NF-kB pathways. Prostate. 2009;69:480–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Lucia MS, Lambert JR. Growth factors in benign prostatic hyperplasia: basic science implications. Curr Urol Rep. 2008;9:272–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Begley LA, Kasina S, MacDonald J, et al. The inflammatory microenvironment of the aging prostate facilitates cellular proliferation and hypertrophy. Cytokine. 2008;43:194–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Konig JE, Senge T, Allhoff EP, et al. Analysis of the inflammatory network in benign prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer. Prostate. 2004;58:121–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Steiner G, Stix U, Handisurya A, et al. Cytokine expression pattern in benign prostatic hyperplasia infiltrating T cells and impact of lymphocytic infiltration on cytokine mRNA profile in prostatic tissue. Lab Invest. 2003;83:1131–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Novara G, Galfano A, Berto RB, et al. Inflammation, apoptosis, and BPH: what is the evidence? Eur Urol Suppl. 2006;5:401–9.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Coussens LM, Werb Z. Inflammation and cancer. Nature. 2002;420:860–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Fernandez F, de Beer PM, van der Merwe L, Heyns CF. COX-2 promoter polymorphisms and the association with prostate cancer risk in South African men. Carcinogenesis. 2008;29(12):2347–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Sarkar FH, Adsule S, Li Y, Padhye S. Back to the future:COX-2 inhibitors for chemoprevention and cancer therapy. Med Chem. 2007;7:599–608.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Roberts RO, Jacobson DJ, Girman CJ, et al. A population-based study of daily nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and prostate cancer. Mayo Clin Proc. 2002;77:219–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Pathak SK, Sharma RA, Steward WP, et al. Oxidative stress and cyclooxygenase activity in prostate carcinogenesis: targets for chemopreventive strategies. Eur J Cancer. 2005;41:61–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Wang W, Bergh A, Damber JE. Chronic inflammation in benign prostate hyperplasia is associated with focal upregulation of cyclooxygenase-2, Bcl-2, and cell proliferation in the glandular epithelium. Prostate. 2004;61:60–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Untergasser G, Madersbacher S, Berger P. Benign prostatic hyperplasia: age-related tissue-remodelling. Exp Gerontol. 2005;40:121–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Rigas B, Sun Y. Induction of oxidative stress as a mechanism of action of chemopreventive agents against cancer. Br J Cancer. 2008;98:1157–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    MacLennan GT, Eisenberg R, Fleshman RL, et al. The influence of chronic inflammation in prostatic carcinogenesis: a 5-year followup study. J Urol. 2006;176:1012–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Khandrika L, Kumar B, Koul S, et al. Oxidative stress in prostate cancer. Cancer Lett. 2009;282:125–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Goodwin AC, Jadallah S, Toubaji A, et al. Increased spermine oxidase expression in human prostate cancer and prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia tissues. Prostate. 2008;68:766–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Aydin A, Arsofa-Sarafinovska Z, Sayal A, et al. Oxidative stress and antioxidant in non-metastatatic prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Clin Biochem. 2006;39:176–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Jung K, Seidel B, Rudolph B, et al. Antioxidant enzymes in malignant cell lines and in primary cultured prostatic cells. Free Radic Biol Med. 2007;23(1):127–33.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Yilmaz MI, Saglam K, Sonmez A, et al. Antioxidant system activation in prostate cancer. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2000;98:13–9.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Fleshner NE, Kucuk O. Antioxidant dietary supplements: rationale and current status as a chemopreventive agents for prostate cancer. Urology. 2001;57(Suppl 4A):90–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Sikka SC. Role of oxidative stress response elements and antioxidants in prostate cancer pathobiology and chemoprevention—a mechanistic approach. Curr Med Chem. 2003;10:2679–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Ripple MO, Henry WF, Rago RP, et al. Prooxidant–antioxidant shift induced by androgen treatment of human prostate carcinoma cells. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1997;89:40–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Vykhovanets EV, Shukla S, MacLennan GT, et al. Il-1b-Induced post-transition effect of NF-Kappa B provides time-dependent wave of signals for initial phase of intrapostatic inflammation. Prostate. 2009;69:633–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Karan D, Holzbeierlein J, Thrasher JB. Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1: possible bridge molecule of inflammation and prostate cancer. Cancer Res. 2009;69(1):2–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Taoka R, Tsukuda F, Ishikawa M, et al. Association of prostatic inflammation with downregulation of macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 gene in symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia. J Urol. 2004;171:2330–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    De Marzo AM, Coffey DS, Nelson WG. New concepts in tissue specificity for prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Urology. 1999;53(Suppl 3A):29–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Platz EA, De Marzo AM. Epidemiology of inflammation and prostate cancer. J Urol. 2004;171:S36–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Klein EA, Silverman R. Inflammation, infection and prostate cancer. Curr Opin Urol. 2008;18:315–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Kesarwani P, Ahirwar DK, Mandhani A, et al. IL-10-1082G>A: a risk for prostate cancer but may be protective against progression of prostate cancer in North Indian cohort. World J Urol. 2009;27(3):389–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Licastro F, Bertaccini A, Porcellini E, et al. Alpha 1 antichymotrypsin genotype is associated with increased risk of prostate carcinoma and PSA levels. Anticancer Res. 2008;28:395–400.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Sáenz-López P, Carretero R, Cózar JM, et al. Genetic polymorphisms of RANTES, IL1-A, MCP-1 and TNF-A genes in patients with prostate cancer. BMC Cancer. 2008;8:382.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Mahmud SM, Tanguay S, Begin LR, et al. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and prostate cancer in a high-risk population. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2006;15:158–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Jacobs EJ, Rodriguez C, Mondul AM, et al. A large cohort study of aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and prostate cancer incidence. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005;97(13):975–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Hsu AL, Ching TT, Wang DS, et al. The cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib induces apoptosis by blocking Akt activation in human prostate cancer cells independently of Bcl-2. J Biol Chem. 2000;275(15):11397–403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Handisurya A, Steiner GE, Stix U, Ecker RC, et al. Differential expression of interleukin-15, a pro-inflammatory cytokine and T-cell growth factor, and its receptor in human prostate. Prostate. 2001;49:251–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Azadzoi K, Pontari M, Vlachiotis J, et al. Canine bladder blood flow and oxygenation: changes induced by filling, contraction and outlet obstruction. J Urol. 1996;155:1459–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Levin RM, Levin SS, Zhao Y, et al. Cellular and molecular aspects of bladder hypertrophy. Eur Urol. 1997;32 Suppl 1:15–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Chapple CR. Pharmacological therapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia/lower urinary tract symptoms: an overview for the practising clinician. BJU Int. 2004;94:738–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Takeda M, Araki I, Kamiyama M, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of voiding symptoms. Urology. 2003;62:11–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Webber R. Benign prostatic hyperplasia. Clin Evid. 2004;11:1119–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Klein EA, Casey G, Silverman R. Genetic susceptibility and oxidative stress in prostate cancer: integrated model with implication for prevention. Urology. 2006;68:1145–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Kooiman GG, Martin FL, Williams JA, et al. The influence of dietary and environmental factors on prostate cancer risk. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2000;3:256–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Pandey M, Gupta S. Green tea and prostate cancer: from bench to clinic. Front Biosci (Elite Ed). 2009;1:13–25.Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Devrim E, Durak I. Is garlic a promising food for benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer? Mol Nutr Food Res. 2007;51:1319–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Chan R, Lok K, Woo J. Prostate cancer and vegetable consumption. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2009;53:201–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Rohrmann S, Giovannucci E, Willett WC, et al. Fruit and vegetable consumption, intake of micronutrients, and benign prostatic hyperplasia in US men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85:523–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Gann PH, Ma J, Giovannucci E, Willett W, et al. Lower prostate cancer risk in men with elevated plasma lycopene levels: results of a prospective analysis. Cancer Res. 1999;59:1225–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Peters U, Takata T. Selenium and the prevention of prostate and colorectal cancer. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2008;52:1261–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Schwarz S, Obermuuller-Jevic OC, Hellmis E, et al. Lycopene inhibits disease progression in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia. J Nutr. 2008;138:49–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Wertz K, Siler U, Goralczyk R. Lycopene: modes of action to promote prostate health. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2004;430:127–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Bureyko T, Hurdle H, Metcalfe JB, et al. Reduced growth and integrin expression of prostate cells cultured with lycopene, vitamin E and fish oil in vitro. Br J Nutr. 2009;101:990–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Gaziano JM, Glynn RJ, Christen WG, et al. Vitamins E and C in the prevention of prostate and total cancer in men: the physicians’ health study II randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2009;301(1):52–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Lippman SM, Klein EA, Goodman PJ, et al. Effect of selenium and vitamin E on risk of prostate cancer and other cancers: the selenium and vitamin E cancer prevention trial (SELECT). JAMA. 2009;301(1):39–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Krishnan AV, Moreno J, Nonn L, Swami S, et al. Calcitriol as a chemopreventive and therapeutic agent in prostate cancer: role of anti-inflammatory activity. J Bone Miner Res. 2007;22(S2):V74–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Carraro JC, Raynaud JP, Koch G, Chisholm GD, et al. Comparison of phytotherapy (Permixon) with finasteride in the treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia: a randomized international study of 1098 patients. Prostate. 1996;29:231–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Levin RM, Das AK. A scientific basis for the therapeutic effects of Pygeum africanum and Serenoa repens. Urol Res. 2000;28:201–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Buck AC. Phytotherapy for the prostate. Br J Urol. 1996;78:325–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Buck AC. Is there a scientific basis for the therapeutic effects of Serenoa repens in benign prostatic hyperplasia? Mechanisms of action. J Urol. 2004;172:1792–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Ookita K, Shiraga T, Matsumura Y. Use of eviprostat for treatment of prostatic hypertrophy. Hinyokika Kiyo. 1966;12:511–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Kinoshita H, Kawamura N, Miyakita H, et al. The effects of combination therapy eviprostats and tamsulosin hydrochloride (Harnals) for benign prostatic hypertrophy. Hinyouki Geka. 1998;11:1297–305.Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Boughton-Smith NK, Deakin AM, Follenfant RL, et al. Role of oxygen radicals and arachidonic acid metabolites in the reverse passive Arthus reaction and carrageenin paw oedema in the rat. Br J Pharmacol. 1993;110:896–902.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Iida M, Saito K. Role of endotoxin-like contaminants in the apparent anti-inflammatory activity of bovine superoxide dismutase. Inflamm Res. 1996;45:268–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of UrologyHarran University Medical School, Arastirma HospitalSanliurfaTurkey

Personalised recommendations