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Oxidative Stress and Testicular Torsion

  • Dikmen Dokmeci
Chapter
Part of the Oxidative Stress in Applied Basic Research and Clinical Practice book series (OXISTRESS)

Abstract

Testicular torsion is a medical urologic syndrome that constitutes a surgical emergency affecting newborns, children, and adolescent boys. The main pathophysiological event in testicular torsion is ischemia (torsion) followed by reperfusion (detorsion) of the testis, and multifactorial mechanisms seem to mediate this condition. Testicular damage after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is related to the duration of ischemia and to the severity of the torsion. I/R injury is associated with activation of neutrophils, inflammatory cytokines, and adhesion molecules with increased thrombogenicity, release of massive intracellular calcium, and overgeneration of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species. Although the results are not conclusive and the molecular mechanism by which antioxidants control male fertility have not yet been clearly identified, several antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant drugs have been studied to prevent such I/R injury in testis. Antioxidant therapy may represent a new option within a broader therapeutic strategy in testicular torsion with oxidative stress-mediated infertility.

Keywords

Antioxidant İschemia/reperfusion Lipid peroxidation Male infertility Oxidative stress Reactive oxygen/nitrogen species Testicular torsion 

Abbreviations

8-OHdG

8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine

AP

Activating protein

ATP

Adenosine triphosphate

CD

Conjugated diene

CT

Computed tomography

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

EFS

Electrical field stimulation

EGF

Epidermal growth factor

eNOS

Endothelial nitric oxide synthase

ERK

Extracellular signal-regulated kinase

FDA

Food and Drug Administration

FSH

Follicule-stimulating hormone

GSH

Glutathione

GSH-Px

Glutathione peroxidase

HIF

Hypoxia-inducible factor

HSP

Heat shock protein

I/R

Ischemia/reperfusion

ICAM

Intercellular adhesion molecule

IGF

Insulin-like growth factor

IL

Interleukin

iNOS

Inducible nitric oxide synthase

JNK

c-Jun-NH2-terminal kinase

l-NAME

l-nitro arginine methyl ester

l-NMMA

l-nitro monomethyl arginine

MAPK

Mitogen-activated protein kinase

MDA

Malondialdehyde

MPO

Myeloperoxidase

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

NADPH

Nicotinamid adenine dinucleotide phosphate

NF-κB

Nuclear factor kappa B

nNOS

Neuronal nitric oxide synthase

NO

Nitric oxide

PAF

Platelet-activating factor

PARP

Poly (adenosine triphosphate-ribose) polymerase

PPAR

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor

RNA

Ribonucleic acid

RNS

Reactive nitrogen species

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

TBARS

Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances

TNF

Tumor necrosis factor

VCAM

Vascular cellular adhesion molecule

VEGF

Vascular endothelial growth factor

VIP

Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of MedicineTrakya UniversityEdirneTurkey

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