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Developmental Biology of the Placenta

Chapter
Part of the Current Clinical Pathology book series (CCPATH)

Abstract

The placenta is a transient organ consisting of cell types that are unique to eutherian mammals. It is fetal in origin and shares just half of the genome with that of the maternal uterus. Although existing for only 9 months, there are constant morphological and biological fluctuations within the placenta proper and at the interface between the placenta and the maternal endomyometrium. It is at the latter interface that unique fetomaternal tissue remodeling, hormonal regulation, and immunological interactions are regulated in such a delicate balance, so that appropriate maternal support can be delivered to the embryo and the mother does not illicit an immunologic rejection response to the growing gestational structures. Proliferative disorders including tumors arising from the placenta have distinct genetic, biological, and immunological properties that are drastically different from those of the maternal neoplasms. Recent findings of genomic imprinting including imprinted X chromosome inactivation in the placenta and its implication in the pathogenesis of gestational trophoblastic diseases raised some fundamental questions in mammalian biology and oncology.

Keywords

Placental development Implantation Trophoblastic cells Genomic imprinting and placental evolution 

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PathologyYale University School of MedicineNew HavenUSA

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