Myocardial Repair and Restoration

  • Sharon S. Y. Wong
  • Harold S. BernsteinEmail author
Part of the Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine book series (STEMCELL)


Over 19 million people in the USA and Europe alone suffer with heart failure, causing 230,000 deaths each year incurring tremendous costs. Heart transplantation remains the definitive treatment for end-stage heart failure, but this therapy is invasive, costly, and excludes some patients who are not candidates for transplantation and others for whom an organ is not available. New therapies are needed to treat the millions of patients with debilitating heart failure worldwide. Myocardial engineering represents a realistic strategy for reversing the deleterious effects of what has until now been considered terminal damage to the heart. This chapter reviews potential sources of cardiac-specific stem cells, efforts to enhance their engraftment and survival in damaged tissues, their incorporation into tissue patches, and recent progress made in developing methods to assess functional improvement in engineered myocardium.


Optical Mapping hESC Line Cardiac Differentiation Cardiac Stem Cell MES1 Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2


α-Myosin heavy chain


Atrial natriuretic factor


Bone morphogenetic protein 4


Basic fibroblast growth factor




Cardiac Troponin I


Cardiac Troponin T


Dickkopf homolog 1


Extracellular matrix


Fluorescence resonance energy transfer


Green fluorescent protein


Human embryoid body


Human embryonic stem cell


Herpes thymidine kinase/ganciclovir


Induced pluripotent stem cell


Kinase insert domain receptor (VEGF receptor 2)


Multidrug resistance-like protein 1


Multielectrode array


Myocyte enhancer factor-2


Major histocompatibility complex


Myocardial infarction




Atrial myosin light chain 2


Ventricular myosin light chain 2


Mesenchymal stem/stromal cell


Prostaglandin I2


Red fluorescent protein


Stem cell antigen-1


Side population


Tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester perchlorate


Vascular endothelial growth factor



The authors thank members of the Bernstein Laboratory for helpful discussion. H.S.B. is supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health, the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine, and the Muscular Dystrophy Association. S.S.Y.W. was supported by a fellowship from the National Institutes of Health.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cardiovascular Research InstituteUniversity of California San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.Cardiovascular Research InstituteSan FranciscoUSA
  3. 3.Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell ResearchUniversity of California San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA
  4. 4.Department of PediatricsUniversity of California San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA

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