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Synthetic Multi-level Matrices for Bone Regeneration

  • Nicholas R. Boyd
  • Richard L. Boyd
  • George P. Simon
  • David R. NisbetEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine book series (STEMCELL)

Abstract

Current bone replacement strategies are clinically inadequate, yet there is great promise in the use of synthetic adjuvant matrices. Electrospinning provides a three-dimensional platform in which matrices can be designed to mimic features of the extracellular matrix and improve bone regeneration. Composite nanofibers can be functionalised with therapeutic molecules, and/or may permit the delivery of growth factor combinations as required to stimulate bone healing. Collectively, these should more precisely direct repair by exogenous and endogenous stem and progenitor cells. The real novelty will be in combining multiple levels of scaffold-based tissue engineering developments in an “off the shelf” clinic-ready product. Until then, application of bioactive nanofiber analogues, with dual-scale three-dimensional porosity that can be co-interfaced within effective stem cell treatment regimes, will be crucial in develo­ping smart matrices for skeletal repair. This review presents holistic concepts for more effective bone regeneration and the methods in which they can be incorporated into nanotechnology-based scaffolds from a materials engineering perspective.

Keywords

Bone Regeneration Bioactive Glass Bone Tissue Engineering Composite Nanofibers Electrospun Fiber 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

ALP

Alkaline phosphate

BMP-2

Bone morphogenetic protein-2

BMSCs

Bone-marrow-derived stromal cells

BSP

Bone sialoprotein-2

ECM

Extracellular matrix

FAp

Fluoroapatite

FDA

Food and Drug Administration

FGF-2

Fibroblast growth factor-2

HAp

Hydroxyapatite

Hep

Heparin

Hep-S

Heparan sulphate

LbL

Layer-by-layer

MMT

Montmorillonite

MSCs

Mesenchymal stem cells

MWCNT

Multi-walled carbon nanotube

MWNT

Multi-walled nanotube

OC

Osteocalcin

OP

Osteopontin

OPG

Osteoprotegerin

PCL

Poly(ε-caprolactone)

PDGF

Platelet-derived growth factor

PEO

Polyethylene oxide

PDLLA

Poly(DLlactide)

PGA

Polyglycolic acid

PLA

Polylactic acid

PLLA

Poly-l-lactide acid

RANKL

Receptor activator of NF-κB ligand

RGD

Arg-Gly-Asp

rhBMP-2

Recombinant human BMP-2

SBF

Simulated body fluid

SEM

Scanning electron microscopy

SIS

Small intestinal submucosa

SPARC

Osteonectin

TCP

Tricalcium phosphate

TEM

Transmission electron microscopy

TGF-β

Transforming growth factor β

TSP

Thrombospondin

VEGF

Vascular endothelial growth factor

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicholas R. Boyd
    • 1
  • Richard L. Boyd
    • 2
  • George P. Simon
    • 1
  • David R. Nisbet
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Materials EngineeringMonash UniversityClaytonAustralia
  2. 2.Monash Immunology and Stem Cell LaboratoriesMonash UniversityClaytonAustralia
  3. 3.Research School of Engineering, ANU College of Engineering and Computer ScienceThe Australian National UniversityCanberraAustralia

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