Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Latest Advances

  • Sowmya Viswanathan
  • Armand KeatingEmail author
Part of the Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine book series (STEMCELL)


Over the past decade, the study of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) has moved rapidly from in vitro and animal models to randomized clinical trials. Despite the challenges of defining MSCs, a consensus has emerged on culture methodology and their characterization, including the requirement for a minimum immunophenotype. Mechanisms of action in tissue regeneration have matured from the simple notion of transdifferentiation to effects on endogenous progenitors and promotion of an anti-inflammatory environment. Clinical investigation with MSCs now covers a wide variety of diseases, and sources of MSCs other than the bone marrow continue to be identified. Genetically engineered MSCs may provide more effective agents of tissue regeneration but will require careful preclinical study. Nonetheless, challenges remain: the need for appropriate preclinical models, informative clinical trials, good manufacturing practice cell production, and long-term trials follow-up.


Spinal Cord Injury Expand Disability Status Scale Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Expand Disability Status Scale Score Human MSCs 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis


Acute myocardial infarction


Adipose tissue


Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cell


Basic fibroblast growth factor


Brain-derived neurotrophic factor


Bone marrow


Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cell


Crohn’s disease


Crohn’s disease activity index


Dendritic cell




Dimethyl sulfoxide


Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis


Fetal bovine serum


Fibroblast growth factor


Graft-versus-host disease


Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor


Good manufacturing practice


Hepatocyte growth factor


Human leukocyte antigen DR


Human leukocyte antigen G5


Human umbilical cord perivascular cells


Inflammatory bowel disease


Indoleamine-pyrrole 2,3-dioxygenase


Insulin-like growth factor-1


Leukemia inhibitory factor


Myocardial infarction


Major histocompatibility complex


Mesenchymal stromal cells


Nerve growth factor


Natural killer


Nitric oxide




Parkinson’s disease


Platelet-derived growth factor


Prostaglandin E2


Stromal cell-derived factor-1


Stage specific embryonic antigen-3/4


Transforming growth factor-beta


Regulatory T cell


Tumor necrosis factor inducible gene-6 protein


Umbilical cord


Umbilical cord blood


Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1


Vascular endothelial growth factor


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cell Therapy Program, Princess Margaret HospitalUniversity Health NetworkTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Department of MedicineUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

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