Human Embryonic Stem Cells in Regenerative Medicine

  • Odessa Yabut
  • Harold S. BernsteinEmail author
Part of the Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine book series (STEMCELL)


Human embryonic stem cells have the capacity for self-renewal and pluripotency, making them a primary candidate for tissue engineering and regenerative therapies. To date, numerous human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines have been developed and characterized. In this chapter, we discuss how hESC lines are derived, the means by which pluripotency is monitored, and how their ability to differentiate into all three embryonic germ layers is determined. We also outline the methods currently employed to direct their differentiation into populations of tissue-specific, functional cells. Finally, we highlight the general challenges that must be overcome and the strategies being developed in order to generate highly purified hESC-derived cell populations that can safely be used for clinical applications.


Retinal Pigment Epithelium Human Embryonic Stem Cell Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Molecular Beacon hESC Line 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Basic fibroblast growth factor


Dickkopf homolog-1


Human embryoid body


Human embryonic stem cells


Human lymphocyte antigen




Retinal pigment epithelium


Transforming growth factor-β


Vascular endothelial growth factor



The authors thank members of the Bernstein Laboratory for helpful discussion. H.S.B. is supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health, the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine, and the Muscular Dystrophy Association. O.Y. is supported by a fellowship from the National Institutes of Health.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cardiovascular Research InstituteUniversity of CaliforniaSan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.Cardiovascular Research InstituteUniversity of California San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA
  3. 3.Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell ResearchUniversity of California San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA
  4. 4.Department of PediatricsUniversity of California San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA

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