Regenerative Medicine and the Foreign Body Response

  • Kerry A. Daly
  • Bryan N. Brown
  • Stephen F. BadylakEmail author
Part of the Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine book series (STEMCELL)


The host response, and in particular the innate immune response, is critical to the successful application of tissue engineering to the reconstruction of injured or missing tissues. Cell-based, scaffold-based, and signal molecule-based strategies are utilized in regenerative medicine and each of these approaches elicits a distinct host immune response that has a significant impact upon the downstream outcome. Modulation, but not suppression of the immune component of wound healing appears to be essential for constructive remodeling of tissues and organs. Promotion of a pro-wound healing and anti-inflammatory response, and avoidance of the foreign body reaction is associated with a constructive functional remodeling outcome. While macrophages play a pivotal role in this response, other immune cells and the interactions between all cell types involved in tissue remodeling are also clearly important. The objective of this chapter is to provide an overview of the host response to biomaterials including both the pro-inflammatory and resultant foreign body reaction, and the pro-wound healing, anti-inflammatory response that is associated with constructive remodeling.


Host Response Foreign Body Reaction Macrophage Phenotype Foreign Body Giant Cell Foreign Body Response 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Basic fibroblast growth factor


Complement cascade component 5


Chemokine C–C ligand


Cluster of differentiation


Chemokine C–X–C ligand


Damage-associated molecular patterns


Extracellular matrix


1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide; carbodiimide


Epidermal growth factor


Immunoglobulin isotype G




Inducible nitric oxide synthetase


Classically activated macrophage


Alternatively activated macrophage


Matrix metalloproteinase


Platelet-derived growth factor


Poly-lactic co-glycolic acid


Reactive nitrogen intermediates


Reactive oxygen intermediates


Small intestinal submucosal ECM


Transforming growth factor alpha


Transforming growth factor beta


T helper cell (either type 1 or 2)


Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase


Tumor necrosis factor alpha


Vascular endothelial growth factor


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kerry A. Daly
    • 1
  • Bryan N. Brown
    • 2
  • Stephen F. Badylak
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.McGowan Institute for Regenerative MedicineUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA
  2. 2.Department of Clinical SciencesCornell UniversityIthacaUSA

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