Adult Stem Cells and Regeneration of Adipose Tissue

  • Daniel A. Hägg
  • Bhranti Shah
  • Jeremy J. MaoEmail author
Part of the Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine book series (STEMCELL)


Defects in soft tissue may arise from trauma, chronic diseases, tumor resection, and congenital anomalies. Current practices of autologous grafting and native or synthetic fillers including silicone gel or saline implants have limitations and, like most foreign substances, do not represent long-term solutions. In this chapter, we discuss some of the latest findings in the field of soft tissue regeneration and interventional adipogenesis. We suggest that the field can be advanced by the (1) identification of critical areas of clinical demand and corresponding strategies for different clinical entities; (2) translational approaches that promote angiogenesis and survival of adipose tissue grafts; (3) scale-up of bioengineered adipose tissue grafts; (4) development and adoption of large animal models for testing adipose tissue grafts; and (5) establishment of success criteria for adipose tissue regeneration including the maintenance of volume and shape over time.


Adipose Tissue Large Animal Model Angiogenic Growth Factor Soft Tissue Graft Adipose Stem Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Adipose tissue-derived stem cell


Brown adipose tissue


Basic fibroblast growth factor


Extracellular matrix


Mesenchymal stem cell


Poly(ethylene glycol)




Poly(glycolic acid)


Poly(lactic acid)


Poly(l-lactic-co-glycolic acid)


Arginine-glycine-aspartic acid


White adipose tissue



We thank Michael Diggs, Qiongfen Guo, and Kening Hua for administrative assistance. The work described in this chapter is supported by the Swedish Society for Medical Research to D.A.H. and NIH grants RC2DE020767 and R01EB006261.


  1. 1.
    Patrick CW Jr (2001) Tissue engineering strategies for adipose tissue repair. Anat Rec 263(4):361–366PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    American Society of Plastic Surgeons (2008) Reconstructive Surgery Procedures. Available from:
  3. 3.
    Hart D (2003) Overcoming complications of breast implants. Plast Surg Nurs 23(2):55–63, 72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Alster TS, West TB (2000) Human-derived and new synthetic injectable materials for soft-tissue augmentation: current status and role in cosmetic surgery. Plast Reconstr Surg 105(7):2515–2525, discussion 2526–2528PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Beahm EK, Walton RL, Patrick CW Jr (2003) Progress in adipose tissue construct development. Clin Plast Surg 30(4):547–558, viiiPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Garfein ES, Orgill DP, Pribaz JJ (2003) Clinical applications of tissue engineered constructs. Clin Plast Surg 30(4):485–498PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Walgenbach KJ, Shestak KC (2002) Pedicled TRAM breast reconstruction. Breast Dis 16:73–77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Billings E Jr, May JW Jr (1989) Historical review and present status of free fat graft autotransplantation in plastic and reconstructive surgery. Plast Reconstr Surg 83(2):368–381PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tachi M, Yamada A (2005) Choice of flaps for breast reconstruction. Int J Clin Oncol 10(5):289–297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Butterwick KJ et al (2007) Autologous fat transfer: an in-depth look at varying concepts and techniques. Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am 15(1):99–111, viiiPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mojallal A, Shipkov C, Braye F (2008) Breast reconstruction in Poland anomaly with endoscopically-assisted latissimus dorsi muscle flap and autologous fat tissue transfer: a case report and review of the literature. Folia Med (Plovdiv) 50(1):63–69Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wu LC et al (2008) Comparison of donor-site morbidity of SIEA, DIEP, and muscle-sparing TRAM flaps for breast reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg 122(3):702–709PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cronin TD, Gerow FJ (1963) Augmentation mammaplasty: a new “natural feel” prosthesis. Excerpta Medica Int Congr Ser 66:41–49Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lavik E, Langer R (2004) Tissue engineering: current state and perspectives. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 65(1):1–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Levenberg S, Langer R (2004) Advances in tissue engineering. Curr Top Dev Biol 61:113–134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Choi JH et al (2010) Adipose tissue engineering for soft tissue regeneration. Tissue Eng Part B Rev 16(4):413–426PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cannon B, Nedergaard J (2004) Brown adipose tissue: function and physiological significance. Physiol Rev 84(1):277–359PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Enerback S (2010) Human brown adipose tissue. Cell Metab 11(4):248–252PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Saito M et al (2009) High incidence of metabolically active brown adipose tissue in healthy adult humans: effects of cold exposure and adiposity. Diabetes 58(7):1526–1531PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    van Marken Lichtenbelt WD et al (2009) Cold-activated brown adipose tissue in healthy men. N Engl J Med 360(15):1500–1508PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hausman DB et al (2001) The biology of white adipocyte proliferation. Obes Rev 2(4):239–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Poulos SP, Hausman DB, Hausman GJ (2010) The development and endocrine functions of adipose tissue. Mol Cell Endocrinol 323(1):20–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gesta S, Tseng YH, Kahn CR (2007) Developmental origin of fat: tracking obesity to its source. Cell 131(2):242–256PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ibrahim MM (2010) Subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue: structural and functional differences. Obes Rev 11(1):11–18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ohman MK et al (2009) Visceral adipose tissue and atherosclerosis. Curr Vasc Pharmacol 7(2):169–179PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Schipper BM et al (2008) Regional anatomic and age effects on cell function of human adipose-derived stem cells. Ann Plast Surg 60(5):538–544PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Giorgino F, Laviola L, Eriksson JW (2005) Regional differences of insulin action in adipose tissue: insights from in vivo and in vitro studies. Acta Physiol Scand 183(1):13–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Neuss S et al (2008) Long term survival and bipotent terminal differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) in combination with a commercially available three-dimensional collagen scaffold. Cell Transplant 17(8):977–986PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Shanti RM et al (2008) In vitro adipose tissue engineering using an electrospun nanofibrous scaffold. Ann Plast Surg 61(5):566–571PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Stosich MS et al (2007) Vascularized adipose tissue grafts from human mesenchymal stem cells with bioactive cues and microchannel conduits. Tissue Eng 13(12):2881–2890PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Dubois SG et al (2008) Isolation of human adipose-derived stem cells from biopsies and liposuction specimens. Methods Mol Biol 449:69–79PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Moioli EK et al (2010) Hybrid adipogenic implants from adipose stem cells for soft tissue reconstruction in vivo. Tissue Eng Part A 16(11):3299–3307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lin SD, Wang KH, Kao AP (2008) Engineered adipose tissue of predefined shape and dimensions from human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Tissue Eng Part A 14(5):571–581PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Yoshimura K et al (2008) Cell-assisted lipotransfer for cosmetic breast augmentation: supportive use of adipose-derived stem/stromal cells. Aesthetic Plast Surg 32(1):48–55, discussion 56–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Mauney JR et al (2007) Engineering adipose-like tissue in vitro and in vivo utilizing human bone marrow and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells with silk fibroin 3D scaffolds. Biomaterials 28(35):5280–5290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Weiser B et al (2008) In vivo development and long term survival of engineered adipose tissue depend on in vitro precultivation strategy. Tissue Eng Part A 14(2):275–284PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Fischbach C et al (2004) Three-dimensional in vitro model of adipogenesis: comparison of culture conditions. Tissue Eng 10(1–2):215–229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Lee JA et al (2003) Biological alchemy: engineering bone and fat from fat-derived stem cells. Ann Plast Surg 50(6):610–617PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kang SW et al (2008) Porous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microsphere as cell culture substrate and cell transplantation vehicle for adipose tissue engineering. Tissue Eng Part C Methods 14(1):25–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Marra KG et al (2008) FGF-2 enhances vascularization for adipose tissue engineering. Plast Reconstr Surg 121(4):1153–1164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Choi YS et al (2006) Adipogenic differentiation of adipose tissue derived adult stem cells in nude mouse. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 345(2):631–637PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Dolderer JH et al (2007) Spontaneous large volume adipose tissue generation from a vascularized pedicled fat flap inside a chamber space. Tissue Eng 13(4):673–681PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Patrick CW Jr et al (2002) Long term implantation of preadipocyte-seeded PLGA scaffolds. Tissue Eng 8(2):283–293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Walton RL, Beahm EK, Wu L (2004) De novo adipose formation in a vascularized engineered construct. Microsurgery 24(5):378–384PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Alhadlaq A, Tang M, Mao JJ (2005) Engineered adipose tissue from human mesenchymal stem cells maintains predefined shape and dimension: implications in soft tissue augmentation and reconstruction. Tissue Eng 11(3–4):556–566PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Schmidt CE, Baier JM (2000) Acellular vascular tissues: natural biomaterials for tissue repair and tissue engineering. Biomaterials 21(22):2215–2231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Lee CH, Singla A, Lee Y (2001) Biomedical applications of collagen. Int J Pharm 221(1–2):1–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Vashi AV et al (2008) Adipose differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells using Pluronic F-127 hydrogel in vitro. Biomaterials 29(5):573–579PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Hiraoka Y et al (2006) In situ regeneration of adipose tissue in rat fat pad by combining a collagen scaffold with gelatin microspheres containing basic fibroblast growth factor. Tissue Eng 12(6):1475–1487PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kimura Y et al (2003) Adipose tissue engineering based on human preadipocytes combined with gelatin microspheres containing basic fibroblast growth factor. Biomaterials 24(14):2513–2521PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Vashi AV et al (2006) Adipose tissue engineering based on the controlled release of fibroblast growth factor-2 in a collagen matrix. Tissue Eng 12(11):3035–3043PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    O’Connor KC et al (2003) Extracellular matrix substrata alter adipocyte yield and lipogenesis in primary cultures of stromal-vascular cells from human adipose. Biotechnol Lett 25(23):1967–1972PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Lu F et al (2006) Adipose tissues differentiated by adipose-derived stem cells harvested from transgenic mice. Chin J Traumatol 9(6):359–364PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    von Heimburg D et al (2003) Preadipocyte-loaded collagen scaffolds with enlarged pore size for improved soft tissue engineering. Int J Artif Organs 26(12):1064–1076Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Gentleman E et al (2006) Collagen composite biomaterials resist contraction while allowing development of adipocytic soft tissue in vitro. Tissue Eng 12(6):1639–1649PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Rubin JP et al (2007) Collagenous microbeads as a scaffold for tissue engineering with adipose-derived stem cells. Plast Reconstr Surg 120(2):414–424PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Flynn L et al (2007) Adipose tissue engineering with naturally derived scaffolds and adipose-derived stem cells. Biomaterials 28(26):3834–3842PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Flynn LE et al (2008) Proliferation and differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells on naturally derived scaffolds. Biomaterials 29(12):1862–1871PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Flynn L et al (2009) Adipose tissue engineering in vivo with adipose-derived stem cells on naturally derived scaffolds. J Biomed Mater Res A 89(4):929–941PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Borzacchiello A et al (2007) Structural and rheological characterization of hyaluronic acid-based scaffolds for adipose tissue engineering. Biomaterials 28(30):4399–4408PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hemmrich K et al (2008) Autologous in vivo adipose tissue engineering in hyaluronan-based gels – a pilot study. J Surg Res 144(1):82–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hemmrich K et al (2005) Implantation of preadipocyte-loaded hyaluronic acid-based scaffolds into nude mice to evaluate potential for soft tissue engineering. Biomaterials 26(34):7025–7037PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Cho SW et al (2007) Engineered adipose tissue formation enhanced by basic fibroblast growth factor and a mechanically stable environment. Cell Transplant 16(4):421–434PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Cho SW et al (2005) Engineering of volume-stable adipose tissues. Biomaterials 26(17):3577–3585PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Borges J et al (2003) Engineered adipose tissue supplied by functional microvessels. Tissue Eng 9(6):1263–1270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Borges J et al (2007) In vitro analysis of the interactions between preadipocytes and endothelial cells in a 3D fibrin matrix. Minim Invasive Ther Allied Technol 16(3):141–148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Cho SW et al (2006) Enhancement of adipose tissue formation by implantation of ­adipogenic-differentiated preadipocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 345(2):588–594PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Torio-Padron N et al (2007) Engineering of adipose tissue by injection of human preadipocytes in fibrin. Aesthetic Plast Surg 31(3):285–293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Kelly JL et al (2006) Contact with existing adipose tissue is inductive for adipogenesis in matrigel. Tissue Eng 12(7):2041–2047PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Toriyama K et al (2002) Endogenous adipocyte precursor cells for regenerative soft-tissue engineering. Tissue Eng 8(1):157–165PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Tabata Y et al (2000) De novo formation of adipose tissue by controlled release of basic fibroblast growth factor. Tissue Eng 6(3):279–289PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Kimura Y et al (2002) Time course of de novo adipogenesis in Matrigel by gelatin microspheres incorporating basic fibroblast growth factor. Tissue Eng 8(4):603–613PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Yuksel E et al (2000) De novo adipose tissue generation through long term, local delivery of insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 by PLGA/PEG microspheres in an in vivo rat model: a novel concept and capability. Plast Reconstr Surg 105(5):1721–1729PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Yuksel E et al (2000) Increased free fat-graft survival with the long term, local delivery of insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I, and basic fibroblast growth factor by PLGA/PEG microspheres. Plast Reconstr Surg 105(5):1712–1720PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Masuda T, Furue M, Matsuda T (2004) Photocured, styrenated gelatin-based microspheres for de novo adipogenesis through corelease of basic fibroblast growth factor, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor I. Tissue Eng 10(3–4):523–535PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    The Jackson Laboratory (2011) Mouse strain information. 2011; Available from: Accessed 6 Aug 2011
  77. 77.
    Rangarajan A, Weinberg RA (2003) Opinion: comparative biology of mouse versus human cells: modelling human cancer in mice. Nat Rev Cancer 3(12):952–959PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Ames BN, Shigenaga MK, Hagen TM (1993) Oxidants, antioxidants, and the degenerative diseases of aging. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90(17):7915–7922PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Patrick CW et al (2008) Animal models for adipose tissue engineering. Tissue Eng Part B Rev 14(2):167–178PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Patrick CW Jr et al (1999) Preadipocyte seeded PLGA scaffolds for adipose tissue engineering. Tissue Eng 5(2):139–151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Rouwkema J, Rivron NC, van Blitterswijk CA (2008) Vascularization in tissue engineering. Trends Biotechnol 26(8):434–441PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Katz AJ et al (1999) Emerging approaches to the tissue engineering of fat. Clin Plast Surg 26(4):587–603, viiiPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Jain RK et al (2005) Engineering vascularized tissue. Nat Biotechnol 23(7):821–823PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Stosich MS, Mao JJ (2007) Adipose tissue engineering from human adult stem cells: clinical implications in plastic and reconstructive surgery. Plast Reconstr Surg 119(1):71–83, discussion 84–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Johnson PC et al (2007) Strategic directions in tissue engineering. Tissue Eng 13(12):2827–2837PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Stosich MS et al (2009) Bioengineering strategies to generate vascularized soft tissue grafts with sustained shape. Methods 47(2):116–121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Halberstadt C et al (2002) A hydrogel material for plastic and reconstructive applications injected into the subcutaneous space of a sheep. Tissue Eng 8(2):309–319PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Rodeheffer MS, Birsoy K, Friedman JM (2008) Identification of white adipocyte progenitor cells in vivo. Cell 135(2):240–249PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Mandrup S et al (1997) Obese gene expression at in vivo levels by fat pads derived from s.c. implanted 3T3-F442A preadipocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94(9):4300–4305PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Kawaguchi N et al (1999) Reconstituted basement membrane potentiates in vivo adipogenesis of 3T3-F442A cells. Cytotechnology 31(3):215–220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Mizuno H et al (2008) In vivo adipose tissue regeneration by adipose-derived stromal cells isolated from GFP transgenic mice. Cells Tissues Organs 187(3):177–185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Choi YS, Park SN, Suh H (2005) Adipose tissue engineering using mesenchymal stem cells attached to injectable PLGA spheres. Biomaterials 26(29):5855–5863PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Cronin KJ et al (2004) New murine model of spontaneous autologous tissue engineering, combining an arteriovenous pedicle with matrix materials. Plast Reconstr Surg 113(1):260–269PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Joe AW et al (2009) Depot-specific differences in adipogenic progenitor abundance and proliferative response to high-fat diet. Stem Cells 27(10):2563–2570PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Yagi K et al (2004) A novel preadipocyte cell line established from mouse adult mature adipocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 321(4):967–974PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Guo K et al (2009) Preadipocyte transplantation: an in vivo study of direct leptin signaling on adipocyte morphogenesis and cell size. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 296(5):R1339–R1347PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Fischbach C et al (2004) Generation of mature fat pads in vitro and in vivo utilizing 3-D long term culture of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Exp Cell Res 300(1):54–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    von Heimburg D et al (2001) Human preadipocytes seeded on freeze-dried collagen scaffolds investigated in vitro and in vivo. Biomaterials 22(5):429–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Hong L et al (2006) Adipose tissue engineering by human adipose-derived stromal cells. Cells Tissues Organs 183(3):133–140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Stillaert F et al (2007) Host rather than graft origin of Matrigel-induced adipose tissue in the murine tissue-engineering chamber. Tissue Eng 13(9):2291–2300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Fukumura D et al (2003) Paracrine regulation of angiogenesis and adipocyte differentiation during in vivo adipogenesis. Circ Res 93(9):e88–e97PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Gaillard D, Poli P, Negrel R (1985) Characterization of ouabain-resistant mutants of the preadipocyte Ob17 clonal line. Adipose conversion in vitro and in vivo. Exp Cell Res 156(2):513–527PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Clavijo-Alvarez JA et al (2006) A novel perfluoroelastomer seeded with adipose-derived stem cells for soft-tissue repair. Plast Reconstr Surg 118(5):1132–1142, discussion 1143–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Tang W et al (2008) White fat progenitor cells reside in the adipose vasculature. Science 322(5901):583–586PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Rieck B, Schlaak S (2003) In vivo tracking of rat preadipocytes after autologous transplantation. Ann Plast Surg 51(3):294–300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Rieck B, Schlaak S (2003) Measurement in vivo of the survival rate in autologous adipocyte transplantation. Plast Reconstr Surg 111(7):2315–2323PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Wu X et al (2007) Preparation and assessment of glutaraldehyde-crosslinked collagen-chitosan hydrogels for adipose tissue engineering. J Biomed Mater Res A 81(1):59–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Hofer SO et al (2003) Increasing the volume of vascularized tissue formation in engineered constructs: an experimental study in rats. Plast Reconstr Surg 111(3):1186–1192, discussion 1193–1194PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Tavassoli M (1982) In vivo development of adipose tissue following implantation of lipid-depleted cultured adipocyte. Exp Cell Res 137(1):55–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Van RL, Roncari DA (1982) Complete differentiation in vivo of implanted cultured adipocyte precursors from adult rats. Cell Tissue Res 225(3):557–566PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Schoeller T et al (2001) Histomorphologic and volumetric analysis of implanted autologous preadipocyte cultures suspended in fibrin glue: a potential new source for tissue augmentation. Aesthetic Plast Surg 25(1):57–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Wechselberger G et al (2002) Successful transplantation of three tissue-engineered cell types using capsule induction technique and fibrin glue as a delivery vehicle. Plast Reconstr Surg 110(1):123–129PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Hong SJ et al (2010) Enhancing the viability of fat grafts using new transfer medium containing insulin and beta-fibroblast growth factor in autologous fat transplantation. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 63(7):1202–1208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Brucker M et al (2008) Long term fate of transplanted autologous fat in a novel rabbit facial model. Plast Reconstr Surg 122(3):749–754PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Tarhan E et al (2008) Comparison of AlloDerm, fat, fascia, cartilage, and dermal grafts in rabbits. Arch Facial Plast Surg 10(3):187–193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel A. Hägg
    • 1
  • Bhranti Shah
    • 1
  • Jeremy J. Mao
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine LaboratoryColumbia University Medical CenterNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations