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Engineering Functional Cartilage Grafts

  • Andrea R. Tan
  • Clark T. HungEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine book series (STEMCELL)

Abstract

Articular cartilage is the specialized connective tissue that covers diarthrodial joints (e.g., hip, knee, and shoulder) and serves a load-bearing and lubrication function. As the tissue is avascular, it exhibits a poor healing capacity when injured. Joint arthroplasty, comprised of metal and plastic prostheses, has a limited lifespan after implantation and are ideally reserved for cases of significant traumatic injury and pervasive arthritis. As such, there have been significant efforts to develop cell-based strategies for cartilage repair. Accordingly, there is great anticipation regarding the role that stem cells can serve as a cell source for generating functional articular cartilage grafts. There is a need for both the use of animal cells and models as well as parallel development using human cells to successfully translate these strategies to the clinic.

Keywords

Articular Cartilage Cartilage Repair Cartilage Tissue Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation Cartilage Tissue Engineering 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

BMSC

Bone marrow-derived stem cell

CAD

Computer-aided design

CZ

Calcified cartilage zone

DZ

Deep zone

ECM

Extracellular matrix

FGF

Fibroblast growth factor

GAG

Glycosaminoglycan

hESC

Human embryonic stem cell

IGF

Insulin-like growth factor

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

MZ

Middle zone

OA

Osteoarthritis

PG

Proteoglycan

SZ

Superficial zone

TGF

Transforming growth factor

Notes

Acknowledgment

The authors gratefully acknowledge research support of the work described in this chapter (NIH grants AR46568, AR52871, and AR060361).

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biomedical EngineeringColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA

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