Advertisement

Treating Oncologic Disease

  • Peter W. Andrews
Part of the Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine book series (STEMCELL)

Abstract

The cancer stem cell hypothesis has become popular in the past few years, in part to provide an explanation of the recurrence of the disease following initial remission and apparent cure. Nevertheless, the concept that cancer is a developmental disease resulting from aberrant control of cellular differentiation is old and is epitomized by teratocarcinomas, a form of testicular germ cell tumor, and by the hematological malignancies. These ideas have developed in parallel with the notion of tissue stem cells that provide for the replacement of functional cells in adult tissues, especially in those tissues subject to continual ‘wear and tear’ throughout adult life. Although a simple view might hold that cancers contain a small population of cancer initiating stem cells equivalent to and, perhaps, derived from the stem cells of the tissue from which they arise, the circumstances of such cancer stem cells is inevitably very different from those of tissue stem cells. Consequently the possibility that a tumor can be composed entirely of oxymoronic nullipotent stem cells is still compatible with a stem cell view of cancer initiation and progression. This review considers the origins of the cancer stem cell concept, and issues that need to be addressed to enhance its utility for developing methods for preventing and treating cancer.

Keywords

Cancer Teratocarcinomas Germ cell tumors Embryonal carcinoma Cancer stem cells 

References

  1. 1.
    Hethcote HW, Knudson AG Jr. Model for the incidence of embryonal cancers: application to retinoblastoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1978; 75:2453–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ailles LE, Irving L, Weissman IL. Cancer stem cells in solid tumors. Curr Opin Biotechnol 2007; 18:460–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gupta PB, Chaffer CL, Weinberg RA. Cancer stem cells: mirage or reality? Nat Med 2009; 15:1010–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lajtha LG. Stem cell concepts. Differentiation 1979; 14:23–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Potten CS, Lajtha LG. Stem cells versus stem lines. Ann NY Acad Sci 1982; 397:47–60.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cairns J. Mutation selection and the natural history of cancer. Nature 1975; 255:197–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zhou BBS, Zhang H, Damelin M, Geles KG, Grindley JC, Dirks PB. Tumour-initiating cells: challenges and opportunities for anticancer drug discovery. Nat Rev Drug Discovery 2009; 8:806–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Quintana E, Shackleton M, Sabel MS, Fullen DR, Johnson TM, Morrison SJ. Efficient tumor formation by single human melanoma cells. Nature 2008; 456:593–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Potten CS, Loeffler M. Stem cells: attributes, cycles, spirals, pitfalls and uncertainties: Lessons for and from the Crypt. Development 1990; 110:1001–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jones PH, Simons BD, Watt FM. Sic transit gloria: farewell to the epidermal transit ­amplifying cell? Cell Stem Cell 2007; 1:371–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Andrews PW. From teratocarcinomas to embryonic stem cells. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B 2002; 357:405–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Stevens LC, Little CC. Spontaneous testicular teratomas in an inbred strain of mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1954; 40:1080–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kleinsmith LJ, Pierce GB. Multipotentiality of single embryonal carcinoma cells. Cancer Res 1964; 24:1544–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Solter D. From teratocarcinomas to embryonic stem cells and beyond: a history of embryonic stem cell research. Nat Rev Genet 2006; 7:319–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Martin GR, Evans MJ. Differentiation of clonal lines of teratocarcinoma cells: formation of embryoid bodies in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1975; 72:1441–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Damjanov I. Teratocarcinoma stem cells. Cancer Surv 1990; 9:303–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    McCulloch EA, Till JE. The radiation sensitivity of normal mouse bone marrow cells, determined by quantitative marrow transplantation into irradiated mice. Radiat Res 1960; 13:115–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Till JE, McCulloch EA. A direct measurement of the radiation sensitivity of normal mouse bone marrow cells. Radiat Res 1961; 14:213–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Greaves MF. Stem cell origins of leukaemia and curability. Br J Cancer 1993; 67:413–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wang JCY, Dick JE. Cancer stem cells: lessons from leukemia. Trends Cell Biol 2005; 15:494–501.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Glauche I, Moore K, Thielecke L, Horn K, Loeffler M, Roeder I. Stem cell proliferation and quiescence – two sides of the same coin. PLoS Comput Biol 2009; 5:e1000447.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Markert CL. Neoplasia: a disease of cell differentiation. Cancer Res 1968; 28:1908–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Pierce GB. Neoplasms, differentiations and mutations. Am J Pathol 1974; 77:103–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Powell AE, Shung CY, Saylor KW, Müllendorf KA, Weiss JB, Wong MH. Lessons from development: A role for asymmetric stem cell division in cancer. Stem Cell Res 2009 Sep 25. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 19853549.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter W. Andrews
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biomedical Science, Centre for Stem Cell BiologyUniversity of SheffieldSheffieldUK

Personalised recommendations