Creation of Human–Animal Entities for Translational Stem Cell Research: Scientific Explanation of Issues That Are Often Confused

  • Neville Cobbe
  • Valerie Wilson
Part of the Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine book series (STEMCELL)


In keeping with the Nuremberg Code and the Declaration of Helsinki, the novel use of certain stem cells in patient treatments is likely to require prior testing in animals in order to minimize risks. When human cells are combined with those of other animals in a living creature, this generates something referred to as a chimera. However, a chimera is only one example of the various possible types of interspecies entities that have been used in biological research. How exactly might these different entities be used in translating basic stem cell research towards clinical therapies? Could the mixing of human and nonhuman materials threaten human identity and, if so, how might this happen? This chapter explores such questions in the light of current biological understanding.


Chimera Interspecies hybrid Cybrid Transgene Human identity 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Neville Cobbe
    • 1
  • Valerie Wilson
  1. 1.School of Biological SciencesUniversity of LiverpoolLiverpoolUK

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