Chemotherapy for Melanoma

  • Hedwig StaniszEmail author
  • Thomas Vogt
  • Knuth Rass
Part of the Current Clinical Pathology book series (CCPATH)


When detected in its early stages, melanoma is a curable disease in the vast majority of patients. Once metastases occur, the prognosis of this disease worsens dramatically. Metastasis localization and tumor burden are critical determinants of survival. In 2008, an estimated 8,420 deaths due to metastatic melanoma were reported in the United States. For distant metastatic disease, the overall 10-year survival rate is less than 10% and median survival of these patients ranges between 6 and 9 months.


Metastatic Melanoma Melanoma Patient Uveal Melanoma Vinca Alkaloid Isolate Limb Perfusion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Jemal A, Siegel R, Ward E, et al. Cancer statistics, 2008. CA Cancer J Clin. 2008;58:71–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Garbe C, Eigentler TK. Diagnosis and treatment of cutaneous melanoma: state of the art 2006. Melanoma Res. 2007;17:117–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Garbe C, Hauschild A, Volkenandt M, et al. Evidence and interdisciplinary consensus-based German guidelines: surgical treatment and radiotherapy of melanoma. Melanoma Res. 2008;18:61–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Middleton MR, Grob JJ, Aaronson N, et al. Randomized phase III study of temozolomide versus dacarbazine in the treatment of patients with advanced metastatic malignant melanoma. J Clin Oncol. 2000;18:158–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Schadendorf D. Is there a standard for the palliative treatment of melanoma? Onkologie. 2002;25:74–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Eigentler TK, Caroli UM, Radny P, et al. Palliative therapy of disseminated malignant melanoma: a systematic review of 41 randomised clinical trials. Lancet Oncol. 2003;4:748–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rass K, Tadler D, Tilgen W. Therapy of malignant melanoma. First-, second-, and pathogenesis-­oriented third-line therapies. Hautarzt. 2006;57:773–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Nashan D, Müller ML, Grabbe S, et al. Systemic therapy of disseminated malignant melanoma: an evidence-based overview of the state-of-the-art in daily routine. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2007;21:1305–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rass K, Tilgen W. Treatment of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2008;624:296–318.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Morton DL, Essner R, Kirkwood JM, Wollmann RC. Malignant melanoma in cancer medicine, vol. 1. 6th ed. Hamilton: BC Decker; 2003 [Chapter 122].Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rass K, Diefenbacher M, Tilgen W. Experimental treatment of malignant melanoma and its rationale. Hautarzt. 2008;59:475–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rass K, Hassel JC. Chemotherapeutics, chemoresistance and the management of melanoma. G Ital Dermatol Venereol. 2009;144:61–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Shackney SE, McCormack GW, Cuchural Jr GJ. Growth rate patterns of solid tumors and their relation to responsiveness to therapy: an analytical review. Ann Intern Med. 1978;89:107–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hartwell LH, Weinert TA. Checkpoints: controls that ensure the order of cell cycle events. Science. 1989;246:629–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Skipper HE. The effects of chemotherapy on the kinetics of leukemic cell behavior. Cancer Res. 1965;25:1544–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Skipper HE. Laboratory models: some historical perspective. Cancer Treat Rep. 1986;70:3–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wilcox WS, Griswold DP, Laster Jr WR, et al. Experimental evaluation of potenital anticancer agents. XVII. Kinetics of growth and regression after treatment of certain solid tumors. Cancer Chemother Rep 1. 1965;47:27–39.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Vaughan K, Tang Y, Llanos G, et al. Studies of the mode of action of antitumor triazenes and triazines. 6. 1-Aryl-3-(hydroxymethyl)-3-methyltriazenes: synthesis, chemistry, and antitumor properties. J Med Chem. 1984;27:357–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Farina P, Benfenati E, Reginato R, et al. Metabolism of the anticancer agent 1-(4-acetylphenyl)-3,3-­dimethyltriazene. Biomed Mass Spectrom. 1983;10:485–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Eggermont AMM, Kirkwood JM. Re-evaluating the role of dacarbazine in metastatic melanoma: what have we learned in 30 years? Eur J Cancer. 2004;40:1825–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lui P, Cashin R, Machado M, et al. Treatments for metastatic melanoma: synthesis of evidence from randomized trials. Cancer Treat Rev. 2007;33:665–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hill II GJ, Krementz ET, Hill HZ. Dimethyl triazeno imidazole carboxamide and combination therapy for melanoma. IV. Late results after complete response to chemotherapy (Central Oncology Group Protocols 7130, 7131, and 7131A). Cancer. 1984;53:1299–305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lee SM, Thatcher N, Margison GP. O6-Alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase depletion and regeneration in human peripheral lymphocytes following dacarbazine and fotemustine. Cancer Res. 1991;51:619–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Denny BJ, Wheelhouse RT, Stevens MF, et al. NMR and molecular modeling investigation of the mechanism of activation of the antitumor drug temozolomide and its interaction with DNA. Biochemistry. 1994;33:9045–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lowe PR, Sansom CE, Schwalbe CH, et al. Antitumor imidazotetrazines. 25. Crystal structure of 8-carbamoyl-3-methylimidazo[5,1-d]-1,2,3,5-tetrazin-4(3H)-one (temozolomide) and structural comparisons with the related drugs mitozolomide and DTIC. J Med Chem. 1992;35:3377–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Patel P, Suciu S, Mortier L. Extended schedule, escalated dose temozolomide versus dacarbazine in stage IV malignant melanoma: final results of the randomised phase III study EORTC 18032. 33rd European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO) Congress; 2008.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Neyns B, Tosoni A, Hwu WJ, Reardon DA. Dose-dense temozolomide regimens: antitumor activity, toxicity, and immunomodulatory effects. Cancer. 2010;116:2868–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Khayat D, Giroux B, Berille J, et al. Fotemustine in the treatment of brain primary tumors and metastases. Cancer Invest. 1994;12:414–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Avril MF, Aamdal S, Grob JJ, et al. Fotemustine compared with dacarbazine in patients with disseminated malignant melanoma: a phase III study. J Clin Oncol. 2004;22:1118–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Jacquillat C, Khayat D, Banzet P, et al. Final report of the French multicenter phase II study of the nitrosourea fotemustine in 153 evaluable patients with disseminated malignant melanoma including patients with cerebral metastases. Cancer. 1990;66:1873–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Calabresi F, Aapro M, Becquart D, et al. Multicenter phase II trial of the single agent fotemustine in patients with advanced malignant melanoma. Ann Oncol. 1991;2:377–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kleeberg UR, Engel E, Israels P, et al. Palliative therapy of melanoma patients with fotemustine. Inverse relationship between tumor load and treatment effectiveness. A multicentre phase II trial of the EORTC-Melanoma cooperative group (MCG). Melanoma Res. 1995;5:195–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Leyvraz S, Spataro V, Bauer J, et al. Treatment of ocular melanoma metastatic to the liver by hepatic arterial chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol. 1997;15:2589–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Peters S, Voelter V, Zografos L, et al. Intra-arterial hepatic fotemustine for the treatment of liver metastases from uveal melanoma: experience in 101 patients. Ann Oncol. 2006;17:578–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bensch KG, Marantz R, Wisniewski H, Shelanski M. Induction in vitro of microtubular crystals by vinca alkaloids. Science. 1969;165:495–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Chan SY, Worth R, Ochs S. Block of axoplasmic transport in vitro by vinca alkaloids. J Neurobiol. 1980;11:251–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Green LS, Donoso JA, Heller-Bettinger IE, Samson FE. Axonal transport disturbances in vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy. Ann Neurol. 1977;1:255–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Quagliana JM, Stephens RL, Baker LH, Costanzi JJ. Vindesine in patients with metastatic malignant melanoma: a Southwest Oncology Group study. J Clin Oncol. 1984;2:316–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Gelmon K. The taxoids: paclitaxel and docetaxel. Lancet. 1994;344:1267–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Zidan J, Hussein O, Abzah A, et al. Oral premedication for the prevention of hypersensitivity reactions to paclitaxel. Med Oncol. 2008;25:274–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kloover JS, den Bakker MA, Gelderblom H, van Meerbeeck JP. Fatal outcome of a hypersensitivity reaction to paclitaxel: a critical review of premedication regimens. Br J Cancer. 2004;90:304–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Wiernik PH, Einzig AI. Taxol in malignant melanoma. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 1993;15:185–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Einzig AI, Hochster H, Wiernik PH, et al. A phase II study of taxol in patients with malignant melanoma. Invest New Drugs. 1991;9:59–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Nathan FE, Berd D, Sato T, et al. Paclitaxel and tamoxifen. An active regimen for patients with metastatic melanoma. Cancer. 2000;88:79–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Rao RD, Holtan SG, Ingle JN, et al. Combination of paclitaxel and carboplatin as second-line therapy for patients with metastatic melanoma. Cancer. 2006;106:375–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hersh EM, O’Day SJ, Ribas A, et al. A phase 2 clinical trial of nab-paclitaxel in previously treated and chemotherapy-naive patients with metastatic melanoma. Cancer. 2010;116:155–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Glover D, Ibrahim J, Kirkwood J, et al. Phase II randomized trial of cisplatin and WR-2721 versus cisplatin alone for metastatic melanoma: an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Study (E1686). Melanoma Res. 2003;13:619–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Casper ES, Bajorin D. Phase II trial of carboplatin in patients with advanced melanoma. Invest New Drugs. 1990;8:187–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Chang A, Hunt M, Parkinson DR, et al. Phase II trial of carboplatin in patients with metastatic malignant melanoma. A report from the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. Am J Clin Oncol. 1993;16:152–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Evans LM, Casper ES, Rosenbluth R. Phase II trial of carboplatin in advanced malignant melanoma. Cancer Treat Rep. 1987;71:171–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Lattanzi SC, Tosteson T, Chertoff J, et al. Dacarbazine, cisplatin and carmustine, with or without tamoxifen, for metastatic melanoma: 5-year follow-up. Melanoma Res. 1995;5:365–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Legha SS, Ring S, Papadopoulos N, et al. A prospective evaluation of a triple-drug regimen containing cisplatin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (CVD) for metastatic melanoma. Cancer. 1989;64:2024–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Chapman PB, Einhorn LH, Meyers ML, et al. Phase III multicenter randomized trial of the Dartmouth regimen versus dacarbazine in patients with metastatic melanoma. J Clin Oncol. 1999;17:2745–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hodi FS, Soiffer RJ, Clark J, et al. Phase II study of paclitaxel and carboplatin for malignant melanoma. Am J Clin Oncol. 2002;25:283–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Hauschild A, Agarwala SS, Trefzer U, et al. Results of a phase III, randomized, placebo-controlled study of sorafenib in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel as second-line treatment in patients with unresectable stage III or stage IV melanoma. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27:2823–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Pföhler C, Cree IA, Ugurel S, et al. Treosulfan and gemcitabine in metastatic uveal melanoma patients: results of a multicenter feasibility study. Anticancer Drugs. 2003;14:337–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Atkins MB, Lotze MT, Dutcher JP, et al. High-dose recombinant interleukin 2 therapy for patients with metastatic melanoma: analysis of 270 patients treated between 1985 and 1993. J Clin Oncol. 1999;17:2105–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Creagan ET, Dalton RJ, Ahmann DL, et al. Randomized, surgical adjuvant clinical trial of recombinant interferon alfa-2a in selected patients with malignant melanoma. J Clin Oncol. 1995;13:2776–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Flaherty LE, Robinson W, Redman BG, et al. A phase II study of dacarbazine and cisplatin in combination with outpatient administered interleukin-2 in metastatic malignant melanoma. Cancer. 1993;71:3520–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Atkins MB, O’Boyle KR, Sosman JA, et al. Multiinstitutional phase II trial of intensive combination chemoimmunotherapy for metastatic melanoma. J Clin Oncol. 1994;12:1553–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Legha SS, Ring S, Eton O, et al. Development of a biochemotherapy regimen with concurrent administration of cisplatin, vinblastine, dacarbazine, interferon alfa, and interleukin-2 for patients with metastatic melanoma. J Clin Oncol. 1998;16:1752–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Ives NJ, Stowe RL, Lorigan P, Wheatley K. Chemotherapy compared with biochemotherapy for the treatment of metastatic melanoma: a meta-analysis of 18 trials involving 2,621 patients. J Clin Oncol. 2007;25:5426–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Eigentler TK, Radny P, Hauschild A, et al. Adjuvant treatment with vindesine in comparison to observation alone in patients with metastasized melanoma after complete metastasectomy: a randomized multicenter trial of the German Dermatologic Cooperative Oncology Group. Melanoma Res. 2008;18:353–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Garbe C, Radny P, Linse R, et al. Adjuvant low-dose interferon α2a with or without dacarbazine compared with surgery alone: a prospective-randomized phase III DeCOG trial in melanoma patients with regional lymph node metastasis. Ann Oncol. 2008;19:1195–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Stadler R, Luger T, Bieber T, et al. Long-term survival benefit after adjuvant treatment of cutaneous melanoma with dacarbazine and low dose natural interferon alpha: a controlled, randomised multicentre trial. Acta Oncol. 2006;45:389–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Verma S, Quirt I, McCready D, et al. Systematic review of systemic adjuvant therapy for patients at high risk for recurrent melanoma. Cancer. 2006;106:1431–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Noorda EM, Vrouenraets BC, Nieweg OE, et al. Isolated limb perfusion: what is the evidence for its use? Ann Surg Oncol. 2004;11:837–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Byrne CM, Thompson JF, Johnston H, et al. Treatment of metastatic melanoma using electroporation therapy with bleomycin (electrochemotherapy). Melanoma Res. 2005;15:45–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Schuster R, Lindner M, Wacker F, et al. Transarterial chemoembolization of liver metastases from uveal melanoma after failure of systemic therapy: toxicity and outcome. Melanoma Res. 2010;20:191–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Koops HS, Vaglini M, Suciu S, et al. Prophylactic isolated limb perfusion for localized, high-risk limb melanoma: results of a multicenter randomized phase III trial. J Clin Oncol. 1998;16:2906–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Cornett WR, McCall LM, Petersen RP, et al. Randomized multicenter trial of hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion with melphalan alone compared with melphalan plus tumor necrosis factor: American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Trial Z0020. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24:4196–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Marty M, Sersa G, Garbay JR, et al. Electrochemotherapy—an easy, highly effective and safe treatment of cutaneous and subcutaneous metastases: results of ESOPE (European Standard Operating Procedures of Electrochemotherapy) study. Eur J Cancer, Suppl. 2006;4:3–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Campana LG, Mocellin S, Basso M, et al. Bleomycin-based electrochemotherapy: clinical outcome from a single institution’s experience with 52 patients. Ann Surg Oncol. 2009;16:191–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Siegel R, Hauschild A, Kettelhack C, et al. Hepatic arterial Fotemustine chemotherapy in patients with liver metastases from cutaneous melanoma is as effective as in ocular melanoma. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2007;33:627–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Sunderkötter C, Eickelmann M, Köhler M, et al. Remission of extensive intrahepatic metastasis by C-arm computed tomography guides chemoembolization in uveal melanoma. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2010;8:525–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Goldie JH, Coldman AJ. Genetic instability in the development of drug resistance. Semin Oncol. 1985;12:222–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Coldman AJ, Goldie JH. Variation in growth parameters and their effect on the acquisition of drug resistance. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1986;223:103–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Coldman AJ, Goldie JH. A stochastic model for the origin and treatment of tumors containing drug-­resistant cells. Bull Math Biol. 1986;48:279–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Kendal WS, Frost P. Metastatic potential and spontaneous mutation rates: studies with two murine cell lines and their recently induced metastatic variants. Cancer Res. 1986;46:6131–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Goldenberg GJ, Vanstone CL, Israels LG, et al. Evidence for a transport carrier of nitrogen mustard in nitrogen mustard-sensitive and -resistant L5178Y lymphoblasts. Cancer Res. 1970;30:2285–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Endicott JA, Ling V. The biochemistry of P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance. Annu Rev Biochem. 1989;58:137–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    La Porta CA. Drug resistance in melanoma: new perspectives. Curr Med Chem. 2007;14:387–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Kadekaro AL, Wakamatsu K, Ito S, Abdel-Malek ZA. Cutaneous photoprotection and melanoma susceptibility: reaching beyond melanin content to the frontiers of DNA repair. Front Biosci. 2006;11:2157–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Leiter U, Schmid RM, Kaskel P, et al. Antiapoptotic bcl-2 and bcl-xL in advanced malignant melanoma. Arch Dermatol Res. 2000;292:225–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Campioni M, Santini D, Tonini G, et al. Role of Apaf-1, a key regulator of apoptosis, in melanoma progression and chemoresistance. Exp Dermatol. 2005;14:811–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Davies H, Bignell GR, Cox C, et al. Mutations of the BRAF gene in human cancer. Nature. 2002;417:949–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Blanco-Aparicio C, Renner O, Leal JF, Carnero A. PTEN, more than the AKT pathway. Carcinogenesis. 2007;28:1379–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Haluska F, Pemberton T, Ibrahim N, Kalinsky K. The RTK/RAS/BRAF/PI3K pathways in melanoma: biology, small molecule inhibitors, and potential applications. Semin Oncol. 2007;34:546–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Smalley KS. PLX-4032, a small-molecule B-Raf inhibitor for the potential treatment of malignant melanoma. Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2010;11:699–706.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Ugurel S, Schadendorf D, Pföhler C, et al. In vitro drug sensitivity predicts response and survival after individualized sensitivity-directed chemotherapy in metastatic melanoma: a multicenter phase II trial of the Dermatologic Cooperative Oncology Group. Clin Cancer Res. 2006;12:5454–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Hafner C, Reichle A, Vogt T. New indications for established drugs: combined tumor-stroma-targeted cancer therapy with PPARγ-agonists, Cox-2 inhibitors, mTOR Antagonists and metronomic chemotherapy. Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2005;5:393–419.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Reichle A, Bross K, Vogt T, et al. Pioglitazone and rofecoxib combined with angiostatic sceduling of trofosfamide in far advanced malignant melanomas and soft tissue sarcomas. Cancer. 2004;101:2247–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Vogt T, Hafner C, Bross K, et al. Antiangiogenetic therapy with pioglitazone, rofecoxib, and metronomic trofosfamide in patients with advanced malignant vascular tumors. Cancer. 2003;98:2251–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Reichle A, Vogt T, Coras B, et al. Targeted combined anti-inflammatory and angiostatic therapy in advanced melanoma: a randomized phase II trial. Melanoma Res. 2007;17:360–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Dermatology, Venerology and AllergologyUniversity Hospital of the SaarlandHomburgGermany

Personalised recommendations