Epidemiology of Blood Lipids and Lipoproteins

  • Peter W.F. WilsonEmail author
Part of the Contemporary Endocrinology book series (COE)


Cholesterol levels in adults are related to several lifestyle factors, including obesity, cigarette smoking, ethanol intake, and physical activity. Higher levels generally confer greater risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. The key determinants for higher levels of atherogenic lipids measured as low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) include high dietary saturated fat, high dietary cholesterol, and low dietary polyunsaturated fat. The key determinants of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), which is associated with greater CVD risk, include male sex, androgen use, progestin use, estrogen deficiency, adiposity, cigarette use, low alcohol intake, diabetes mellitus, and low dietary saturated fat. Mean cholesterol levels have generally risen in the past several decades in regions around the world where the economy is developing. On the other hand, in the developed regions of the world such as the USA and Western Europe, mean cholesterol levels in adults have generally stayed the same or declined modestly.


Coronary heart disease Risk factor Cholesterol Triglycerides Cardiovascular disease 


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© Humana Press 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Medicine and Public HealthEmory UniversityAtlantaUSA

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